Hydrogen can be used as a fuel. It's combustion produces no CO2 and - depending on how it is used - potentially only water as a waste product.
Generating hydrogen, however, may involve significant carbon emissions (such as generation from natural gas) or expensive and inefficient conversion from electricity.
Pathways to hydrogen as an energy carrier THORSTEINN I. SIGFUSSON; Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society; 1 Feb 2007
- When hydrogen is used as an alternative energy carrier, it is very important to understand the pathway from the primary energy source to the final use of the carrier. This involves, for example, the understanding of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of hydrogen and throughout the lifecycle of a given utilization pathway as well as various energy or exergy1 efficiencies and aspects involved. This paper which is based on a talk given at the Royal Society in London assesses and reviews the various production pathways for hydrogen with emphasis on emissions, energy use and energy efficiency. The paper also views some aspects of the breaking of the water molecule and examines some new emerging physical evidence which could pave the way to a new and more feasible pathway.
- A special attention will be given to the use of the renewable energy pathway. As an example of a hydrogen society that could be based on renewable primary energy, the paper describes the hydrogen society experiments in Iceland as well as unconventional hydrogen obtained from geothermal gases. In the light of our experience, attempts will be made to shed light upon drivers as well as obstacles in the development of a hydrogen society.
The Hebrides electricity to hydrogen project uses excess electricity produced from an existing biogas plant to produce Hydrogen by Alkaline Water Electrolysis.
Converting natural gas to hydrogen without any carbon emissions JOHN TIMMER; Ars Technica; 17 Nov 2017
- two new papers out this week suggest we could use natural gas without burning it. They detail efficient methods of converting methane to hydrogen in ways that let us capture much or all of the carbon left over. The hydrogen could then be burned or converted to electricity in a fuel cell—including mobile fuel cells that power cars. The supply obtained from methane could also be integrated with hydrogen from other sources.
- Option 1: proton conduction
- solid proton-conducting electrolyte
- Option 2: reactions in liquid metal
Heating systems: it’s time to talk about hydrogen Molly Lempriere; Power-Technology.com; 2 Aug 2017
- Heating and cooling of buildings and in industrial activities account for almost half of all energy demand in the EU, and yet the decarbonisation of the heating system has seen little progress. This is finally changing as cleaner heating continues to be discussed and researched. One popular suggested solution is switching the heating network from natural gas to hydrogen. This was the key topic of conversation at a recent event run by DNV GL. The seminar, entitled ‘Developing and Operating a Safe Hydrogen Network’, brought together around 100 professionals from gas distribution networks and other interested parties to discuss hydrogen’s potential.
BEIS pipes £25m into hydrogen demo for heating Tom Grimwood; Utility Week; 25 Apr 2017
- The Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) has revealed plans to pipe £25 million into a new research programme exploring the use of hydrogen for heating. The aims of the demonstration project include defining a hydrogen quality standard and developing and trialling hydrogen fuelled appliances for homes and businesses. The department has launched a £5 million tender to find a contractor to manage the programme, which will run from 2017 to 2020. The tender notice states that the programme will “serve to support and inform future policy appraisal in government and to inform the development of policies and measures to meet UK carbon budgets.”
H21 Leeds City Gate project to convert Leed's gas distribution network and consumers' appliances to Hydrogen, supplied from a natural gas to H2 conversion plant with Carbon Capture and Storage on Teesside.
The Hebrides electricity to hydrogen project uses Hydrogen to fuel Postal delivery vehicles.
The HY4 is a four-seater aeroplane powered by electricity generated from Hydrogen in fuel cells. It first flew at Stuttgart airport in Germany in 2016.