GMO Skepti-Forum has discussions of specifically biotechnology issues.
Food and Farm Discussion Lab also has some discussions of biotech issues.
- 1 Relevance to Sustainability and Climate Change
- 2 Genetic Engineering
- 2.1 seed saving / technology agreements
- 2.2 environmental effects
- 2.3 safety
- 2.4 Advocacy
- 2.5 anti
- 2.6 labelling
- 2.7 Bt
- 2.8 naturally occurring
- 2.9 Benefits
- 2.10 Applications
- 2.11 Intellectual property
- 3 dicamba
- 4 Mutagenic Modification
Relevance to Sustainability and Climate Change
The IPCC's 5th Assessment Report considers that the Agriculture sector can "Enhance drought and pest resistance; enhance yields" using "Biotechnology and genetically modified crops", with the Real or perceived trade-off of "Perceived risk to public health and safety; ecological risks associated with introduction of new genetic variants to natural environments". Table 4.3
A general introductory discussion on genetic engineering and 'GMOs' is given by Elizabeth Bent of the University of Guelph in Canada in an article Not all GMO plants are created equally: it’s the trait, not the method, that’s important published in The Conversation on 10 April 2015 [article]. Bent discusses public attitudes to "GMOs", how humans have affected the genetic composition of virtually all food plants by selective breeding, how biotechnology has been used to assist selection, the development of techniques for inserting genes from other (even non-plant) organisms, and different traits that have been produced by such techniques.
- various info on GM
- In Tomorrow’s Table: Organic Farming, Genetics, and the Future of Food, Ronald and Adamchak argue that genetic engineering can help “develop biologically-oriented, sophisticated, and elegant approaches to address agricultural problems” and that “to maximize the benefit of GE [genetically engineered] plants, they would best be integrated into an organic farming system.” Organic farming strives to keep crop yields high without ruining the environment or sacrificing the health of people and animals. To accomplish this, it shuns many of conventional farming’s practices — synthetic chemicals and fertilizers, heavy tilling, monoculture — in favor of ecologically sound strategies, such as planting a high diversity of crops and rotating them frequently so pests do not have a chance to establish themselves. In sum, Adamchak writes, organic farming is “better farming through biology.” And that is exactly what genetic engineering enables, too.
seed saving / technology agreements
NO, FARMERS DON’T WANT TO SAVE SEEDS Amanda; The Farmer's Daughter USA; 23 Feb 2016
GMOs and the environment Iida Ruishalme; Thoughtscapism; 22 Mar 2015
- Many people are worried about the impact GMOs could have on the environment. That’s a reasonable concern. Are GMOs increasing the profits of farmers and biotech companies at the expense of the environment? As I have learned more about biotechnology and agriculture, contrary to popular fear, I have found that there is actually no scientific evidence of harm from GMOs – but it doesn’t stop there. Conversely, I have learned that there are several environmental benefits of biotechnology.
GMO rice dramatically reduces farm greenhouse gas emissions James Conca; Genetic Literacy Project; 2 Dec 2015
New Variety Of Rice Fights Global Warming And Global Hunger James Conca; Forbes; 30 Nov 2015
- A slight change in a single gene of rice can avoid the same amount of greenhouse gas emissions each year as all the wind turbines in the world, the same as 15 nuclear power plants. Work led by Dr. Christer Jansson at the Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that transferring one gene from barley to rice lowered the methane (CH4 or natural gas) emissions from rice paddies to almost zero.
Monsanto Killing DuPont Insecticide Sales With New Soybeans Jack Kaskey; Bloomberg; 6 Apr 2016
- Monsanto Co.’s new Intacta soybeans are not only killing bugs on Brazilian farms. They’re crushing demand for insecticides made by competitors DuPont Co. and FMC Corp.
Dively et al
Regional pest suppression associated with widespread Bt maize adoption benefits vegetable growers Galen P. Dively, P. Dilip Venugopal, Dick Bean, Joanne Whalen, Kristian Holmstrom, Thomas P. Kuhar, Hélène B. Doughty, Terry Patton, William Cissel, William D. Hutchison; PNAS; 2018
- Area-wide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. The offsite benefits to vegetable crops from such pest suppression have not been documented. We show that widespread Bt field corn adoption is strongly associated with marked decreases in the number of recommended insecticidal applications, insecticides applied, and damage to vegetable crops in the United States. These positive impacts to growers, including organic producers, in the agricultural landscape expands on known ecological effects of Bt adoption.
- Transgenic crops containing the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes reduce pests and insecticide usage, promote biocontrol services, and economically benefit growers. Area-wide Bt adoption suppresses pests regionally, with declines expanding beyond the planted Bt crops into other non-Bt crop fields. However, the offsite benefits to growers of other crops from such regional suppression remain uncertain. With data spanning 1976–2016, we demonstrate that vegetable growers benefit via decreased crop damage and insecticide applications in relation to pest suppression in the Mid-Atlantic United States. We provide evidence for the regional suppression of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), European corn borer, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), corn earworm, populations in association with widespread Bt maize adoption (1996–2016) and decreased economic levels for injury in vegetable crops [peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and sweet corn (Zea mays L., convar. saccharata)] compared with the pre-Bt period (1976–1995). Moth populations of both species significantly declined in association with widespread Bt maize (field corn) adoption, even as increased temperatures buffered the population reduction. We show marked decreases in the number of recommended insecticidal applications, insecticides applied, and O. nubilalis damage in vegetable crops in association with widespread Bt maize adoption. These offsite benefits to vegetable growers in the agricultural landscape have not been previously documented, and the positive impacts identified here expand on the reported ecological effects of Bt adoption. Our results also underscore the need to account for offsite economic benefits of pest suppression, in addition to the direct economic benefits of Bt crops.
GMO crops create “halo effect” that benefits organic farmers, says new research MARK LYNAS; Cornell Alliance for Science; 13 Mar 2018
- Growing genetically modified insect-resistant corn in the United States has dramatically reduced insecticide use and created a “halo effect” that also benefits farmers raising non-GM and organic crops, new research shows.
- This finding, published by University of Maryland researchers in the prestigious peer-reviewed journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, effectively shreds the conventional anti-GMO narrative that GM crops result in more pesticide use and present a threat to organic growers.
- In fact, the reverse seems to be the case. The researchers examined the populations of two insect pests — the European corn borer and corn earworm —that attack vegetables such as green beans and peppers as well as field corn, before and after the widespread adoption of genetically modified Bt corn in 1996.
- The scientists charted a steep decline in these insect pest populations that corresponded closely with the widespread adoption of Bt corn. This suggested that an area-wide suppression of pest populations, termed the “halo effect,” was benefiting vegetable growers across three mid-Atlantic US states.
- This GMO halo effect in turn allowed vegetable growers to dramatically reduce the insecticide sprays they had previously relied on to prevent damage to their crops. For example, the pest pressure declines in New Jersey allowed farmers to report insecticide use reductions of 79 percent in sweet corn and 85 percent in peppers between 1992 and 2016.
Charles Benbrook: Former Washington State adjunct consultant for organic industry Genetic Literacy Project; 8 Feb 2016
- Charles “Chuck” Benbrook (born 1949) is an organic proponent, organic industry consultant and paid “expert witness” on pesticide and GMO-related lawsuits, Benbrook is trained as an agricultural economist. He has developed analytical systems he uses to quantify food quality and safety, and the impacts of agricultural technology and policy. He has re-analyzed government reports to suggest that there are high risks associated with GMOs, pesticide use and residue levels.
- Benbrook was formerly the research director of The Organic Center, which is funded by the organic industry and is now officially part of the Organic Trade Association. His three year affiliation with the Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources (CSANR) at Washington State University (WSU), which was funded entirely by organic industry contributions (see below), ended on May 15, 2015 when his contract was not extended. He is now no longer with CSANR.
- A WSU administrator wrote in an August 2015 email that “he [Benbrook] is no longer affiliated with WSU”. However, Benbrook emailed the Genetic Literacy Project on August 20 claiming after his relationship with CSANR was severed, he retained the position of “adjunct” professor at the Department of Crops and Soils. However, that appears not be true. The department will not confirm his position and as of August 30, Benbrook’s current and former association with the university has been purged from the university’s databank.
- Until recently, and after he was severed from WSU, Benbrook had represented himself as a “research professor.” He continues to be misrepresented as a “research professor” by reporters, such as by Carey Gillam at Reuters in an August 19 story on Benbrook’s New England Journal of Medicine co-authored commentary on GMOs, and on websites, including Wikipedia. Benbrook has publicly maintained, including in COI statements to the NEJM, that he has no conflicts of interests despite extensive documentation that his entire research efforts at WSU were 100 percent funded by the organic industry (not disclosed to NEJM, see below, Misrepresentations, for Benbrook’s misrepresentations about his employment situation and in Conflict of Interest representations to NEJM) and that he was and is a paid consultant for organic industry lobby groups and anti-GMO organizations.
- The New York Times has released a trove of Benbrook’s emails secured in a FOIA request, documenting his organic industry funding and his close ties to anti-GMO activists and journalists, including Robyn O’Brien, who bills herself as the food world’s Erin Brokovich.
- A separate FOIA led to the release of more of Benbrook’s emails, available here, which reaffirms his close ties to the industry that has bankrolled him for more than a decade. It includes his demands for financial support for ‘research on request.’ The emails also reveal the close ties of Benbrook and other anti-GMO campaigners, such as the GMO labeling lobbyists, with journalists unstintingly critical of GMOs, such as Michael Pollan and Mother Jones’ Tom Philpott, who appear to coordinate their article strategies and Internet presence with notable advocacy groups and quack alternative health providers.
Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the U.S. -- the first sixteen years Charles M Benbrook; Environmental Sciences Europe; 28 Sep 2012
- Contrary to often-repeated claims that today’s genetically-engineered crops have, and are reducing pesticide use, the spread of glyphosate-resistant weeds in herbicide-resistant weed management systems has brought about substantial increases in the number and volume of herbicides applied. If new genetically engineered forms of corn and soybeans tolerant of 2,4-D are approved, the volume of 2,4-D sprayed could drive herbicide usage upward by another approximate 50%. The magnitude of increases in herbicide use on herbicide-resistant hectares has dwarfed the reduction in insecticide use on Bt crops over the past 16 years, and will continue to do so for the foreseeable future.
Scientists challenge organic backer Benbrook claims that GM crops increase pesticide spraying Jon Entine; Genetic Literacy Project; 12 Oct 2012
- Noted organic scientist Charles Benbrook of the University of Washington recently released a summary of his published study assessing the use of pesticides since the introduction of GM crops in the 1990s. A fierce and respected critic of GM technology, Benbrook claims his data shows that pesticide use has gone up in the US over that time.
GMO: What is the independent scientific consensus? Genetic Literacy Project
- You trust the national and international science organizations that have stated human-caused climate change is a fact. These statements are issued based on thoroughly scrutinized independent expert reviews of hundreds or thousands of scientific papers, with due attention paid to potential bias. The organizations have stood by their statements in the light of further evidence, which has become only more supportive.
- As detailed below, these organizations that you trust agree that climate change is real and alarming, and also that GMOs are safe for our health and for the environment. Their statements are careful, nuanced, and unbiased. For example, they point out that RoundUp herbicide tolerance in weeds is currently a problem, and encourage diversifying agricultural approaches (including alternative GMOs) to solve it. They agree that GMOs are not remotely the whole solution to improving the global food supply, although they can be an important part of it, as can organic methods. (Organic GMO anyone?) They agree that safe and beneficial GMOs should be made available at low or zero cost to developing nations. They agree that many herbicides and insecticides have toxic effects. All of these points run counter to Monsanto’s interests; these organizations make these claims for the same reason they make all their claims: because the science supports them.
More than 275 organizations and scientific institutions support the safety of GM crops Sí Quiero Transgénicos; 25 May 2016
- Currently there is a social and political controversy about the safety of foods produced from genetically modified (GM) crops, however, in the scientific community there is no dispute or controversy regarding the safety of these crops. To date, more than 2000 scientific studies have assessed the safety of these crops in terms of human health and environmental impact. These studies together with several reviews performed on a case by case from regulatory agencies around the world, have enabled a solid and clear scientific consensus: GM crops have no more risk than those that have been developed by conventional breeding techniques. This document brings together the public statements of organizations and scientific institutions that adhere to this consensus. I made an update based on this document from ChileBio that include 40 official documents representing about 190 institutions. The update shows that 276 scientific institutions and organizations recognize the safety of GM crops and their potential benefits. Interestingly a large part of these institutions are located in Europe, the continent that has put more obstacles to the commercialization of these crops. On the other hand, the countries with most organizations in favor of GM crops are United Kingdom (33), United States (24), Italy (23), Spain (16) and Germany (11).
SCIENTIFIC CONSENSUS ON GMO SAFETY AND CLIMATE CHANGE THE ORIGINAL SKEPTICAL RAPTOR; 8 Jul 2015
The case of the poison potato MAGGIE KOERTH-BAKER; Boing-Boing; 25 Mar 2013
- The Lenape potato, developed in the 1960s for the snack business, made a damn fine potato chip. Unfortunately, it was also kind of toxic.
GMOs Have "This One Weird Trick" for Eliminating Dangerous Mycotoxins Elizabeth Held; Food Insight; 28 Mar 2016
- Biotech crops have dramatically reduced the prevalence of a toxic substance known as a mycotoxin often found on crops, which can be dangerous for people who eat it. Mycotoxins are produced by fungi that are able to enter a plant after insect damage. Globally, the FAO estimates that up to half of grains are affected by these naturally occurring toxins. They can harm our immune systems, slow growth, and cause cancer
Prevalence and impacts of genetically engineered feedstuffs on livestock populations A. L. Van Eenennaam, A. E. Young, Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis; Journal of Animal Science; 20 Nov 2014
What happens when 100 billion animals, over 18 years, eat GMOs? Jon Entine; Genetic Literacy Project; 19 Sep 2014
- Visit almost any anti-GMO website and you will find alarming headlines about the alleged dangers of GMO foods. They kill pigs, cows and sheep on farms and in lab studies! Humans are next! Estimates of the numbers of meals consumed by feed animals since the introduction of GM crops 18 years ago would number well into the trillions. By common sense alone, if GE feed were causing unusual problems among livestock, farmers would have noticed. Dead and sick animals would literally litter farms around the world. Yet there are no anecdotal reports of such mass health problems.
Statement by the AAAS Board of Directors On Labeling of Genetically Modified Foods AAAS; 12 June 2013 There are several current efforts to require labeling of foods containing products derived from genetically modified crop plants, commonly known as GM crops or GMOs. These efforts are not driven by evidence that GM foods are actually dangerous. Indeed, the science is quite clear: crop improvement by the modern molecular techniques of biotechnology is safe. Rather, these initiatives are driven by a variety of factors, ranging from the persistent perception that such foods are somehow “unnatural” and potentially dangerous to the desire to gain competitive advantage by legislating attachment of a label meant to alarm. Another misconception used as a rationale for labeling is that GM crops are untested.
National Academy of Sciences
Distinction Between Genetic Engineering and Conventional Plant Breeding Becoming Less Clear, Says New Report on GE Crops National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; 17 May 2016
- An extensive study by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine has found that new technologies in genetic engineering and conventional breeding are blurring the once clear distinctions between these two crop-improvement approaches. In addition, while recognizing the inherent difficulty of detecting subtle or long-term effects on health or the environment, the study committee found no substantiated evidence of a difference in risks to human health between current commercially available genetically engineered (GE) crops and conventionally bred crops, nor did it find conclusive cause-and-effect evidence of environmental problems from the GE crops. However, evolved resistance to current GE characteristics in crops is a major agricultural problem.
- A tiered process for regulating new crop varieties should focus on a plant’s characteristics rather than the process by which it was developed, the committee recommends in its report. New plant varieties that have intended or unintended novel characteristics that may present potential hazards should undergo safety testing -- regardless of whether they were developed using genetic engineering or conventional breeding techniques.
Scientists Say GMO Foods Are Safe, Public Skepticism Remains Tamar Haspel; National Geographic; 17 May 2016
- Genetically-engineered crops are as safe to eat as their non-GE counterparts, they have no adverse environmental impacts, and they have reduced the use of pesticides. That’s according to a comprehensive report released by the National Academy of Sciences today—a group founded by the U.S. Congress to provide expert scientifically-based advice on a wide variety of issues.
- But the academy also found that GE or (genetically-modified organisms or GMO) crops didn’t increase those crops’ potential yields, and they did lead to widespread and expensive problems with herbicide-resistant weeds.
- The report acknowledges that beyond safety, other issues need to be addressed, including earning the public’s trust. It recommends a more transparent and inclusive conversation about GE crops going forward.
- The report, two years in the making, is a 388-page, comprehensive look at every aspect of genetically engineered crops. “Sweeping statements about GE crops are problematic because issues related to them are multidimensional,” the report says right up front, and goes on to dig deep on those dimensions.
Once again, U.S. expert panel says genetically engineered crops are safe to eat Kelly Servick; AAAS Science; 17 May 2016
- Almost 2 years ago, a group of 20 scientists began hashing out a consensus on the risks and benefits of genetically engineered (GE) crops. Since the launch of their study, sponsored by the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, the public debate around the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and whether to label them has continued to rage. But behind the scenes, some things have changed. Agricultural markets are now bracing for an explosion of new plants designed using the precise gene-editing technology CRISPR, and regulators in both the United States and the European Union are struggling with how to assess their safety.
- The panel’s report, released today, is a hefty literature review that tackles mainstay questions in the well-worn GMO debate. Are these plants safe to eat? How do they affect the environment? Do they drive herbicide-resistance in weeds or pesticide-resistance in insects? But it also weighs in on a more immediate conundrum for federal agencies: what to do with gene-edited plants that won’t always fit the technical definition of a regulated GE crop.
- The authors picked through hundreds of research papers to make generalizations about GE varieties already in commercial production: There is “reasonable evidence that animals were not harmed by eating food derived from GE crops,” and epidemiological data shows no increase in cancer or any other health problems as a result of these crops entering into our food supply. Pest-resistant crops that poison insects thanks to a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) generally allow farmers to use less pesticide. Farmers can manage the risk of those pests evolving resistance by using crops with high enough levels of the toxin and planting non-Bt “refuges” nearby. Crops designed to be resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, meanwhile, can lead to heavy reliance on the chemical, and spawn resistant weeds that “present a major agronomic problem.” The panel urges more research on strategies to delay weed resistance.
- The report saves the issue of regulation for its final chapter. Many countries—including the United States, whose framework for reviewing new biotechnology products was drafted in 1986—didn’t envision modern technologies when they legally defined genetic engineering. The first generation of GE crops used a bacterium to ferry genes from one organism into another. But CRISPR can knockout or precisely edit DNA sequences without leaving behind any foreign DNA. In fact, the DNA of a gene-edited crop could end up looking nearly identical to that of a conventionally bred variety. Last month, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) deemed two CRISPR-edited crops, a mushroom that resists browning and a high-yield variety of waxy corn, to be exempt from its review process because neither contained genetic material from species considered to be “plant pests.”
- Critics of those decisions argue that small genetic changes can still have big effects on the characteristics of a plant, and that gene-edited crops have slipped through the cracks without proper safety testing. Others argue that the precision of CRISPR limits environmental and health risks by making fewer unintended tweaks to a plant’s genome, and that subjecting them to a full regulatory review is needlessly costly and time consuming for their producers.
- Last summer, the White House announced it would revamp the legal framework for evaluating biotechnology products across USDA, the Food and Drug Administration, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The European Commission, meanwhile, is also mulling whether plants without foreign DNA count as genetically modified.
- Like several National Academies reviews before it, the new study condemned regulatory approaches that classify products based on the technology used to create them. “The National Academy has been saying since 1987 that it should be the product, not the process,” says Fred Gould, an applied evolutionary biologist at North Carolina State University in Raleigh, and chair of the new report. “But the problem up until now is … how do you decide which products need more examination than others?”
- There, the report makes a new suggestion: Regulators should ask for a full analysis of a plant’s composition—using modern “-omics” tools such as genome sequencing and analysis of the proteins and small molecules in a sample—to determine when a full safety review is necessary. The authors propose that crops containing different genes, producing a different set of proteins, or carrying out different metabolic reactions than conventionally bred varieties should trigger regulatory review if those differences have potential health or environmental impacts. And if a trait is so new that there’s no conventional counterpart to compare it to … just go ahead and regulate it, they conclude.
Genetically Engineered Crops Are Safe and Possibly Good for Climate Change Niina Heikkinen, ClimateWire; Scientific American; 18 May 2016
- Genetic engineering could play a role in making crops more resilient to climate change, but more research is still needed to understand the technology’s potential uses, the National Academy of Sciences said yesterday.
- In a sweeping 400-page report, the country’s top scientific group found there was not evidence to support claims that genetically modified organisms are dangerous for either the environment or human health. At the same time, the introduction of genetically engineered crops had little apparent influence on the rate at which agricultural productivity was increasing over time.
- In the future, the academy said, researchers and regulators should be sure to evaluate the safety and efficacy of specific crops, rather than focus on potential risk posed by the process of modifying the plants.
... biological science can never be definitive in the way a 5-sigma particle detector result can be definitive in physics. Obviously, the precautionary principle is essential and important, but how much precaution counts as enough? Given actual benefit today and potential problems later (without plausible mechanism or observed problems), I think it's reasonable to apply it now and be vigilant about and responsive to problems as they crop up in the future.
The report found no cause and effect relationships to environmental harm, but that doesn't mean there are none to be found. This result has many potential explanations: either harm doesn't exist, or it does but at a level too subtle for existing experimental designs to pick it up, or we're looking for the wrong thing, or the study is done wrong.
But I think that an experiment designed with sufficient scope and power should be able to find problems if they exist. And I think that when a study across a broad enough stretch of time, a large-enough study sample, and a large-enough amount of study subjects fails to find a result, it makes me confident to say that results, if they exist, are too miniscule for us to be able to detect.
You're right, there are potential problems and unknowns that may crop up in the far future, or over a much longer term than we have seen yet. But 20 years of GM crops used widely, literally billions of hours of exposure of farm animals to GM feed, and no sign of exceptional problems yet, makes me think it's reasonable to proceed.
There is no magic finish line of "this is permanently Okay Forever", and this is not how science works. Caution is always warranted, especially with technologies that are new, but there must always be a point where the evidence we have so far is sufficient to reasonably justify proceeding. If you want to start moving the goalposts over how much time and how many experiments counts as enough to declare something Okay Forever, you can move the goalposts JUST beyond how much evidence currently exists ad infinitum.
I think that this report, which acknowledges the concern for potential problems in the future, and also explicitly points out that the data does not support these problems existing now, is an acknowledgement towards GM technology critics, but far, far from an endorsement.
I believe the evidence is clear so far. But for some critics, there is **no** amount that would suffice. I don't believe that position is worth entertaining, but it can often disguise itself in less absolutist-seeming but just as absolute ways.
BBC Panorama "Cultivating Fear"
"GM Food: Cultivating Fear" BBC; Jun 2015
BBC dismisses anti-GMO activist complaints over Panorama film’s portrayal of Bangladesh Bt brinjal project Mark Lynas; (blog); 12 Apr 2016
The BBC has dismissed complaints by anti-GMO activists that its Panorama film ‘GM Food: Cultivating Fear‘ broadcast in June 2015, was biased and inaccurate. In a lengthy judgement just published (pdf), the BBC’s highest complaints body, the Editorial Standards Committee (ESC) of the BBC Trust, found that all the complaints made about the programme were without merit.
Appeals to the Trust and other editorial issues considered by the Editorial Standards Committee BBC Trust; Feb 2016, issued Mar 2016
Genetically Modified Salmon and Full Impact Assessment Martin D. Smith, Frank Asche, Atle G. Guttormsen, Jonathan B. Wiener; AAAS Science; 19 Nov 2010
- As the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers approving a genetically modified (GM) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), it faces fundamental questions of risk analysis and impact assessment. The GM salmon — whose genome contains an inserted growth gene from Pacific chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and a switch-on gene from ocean pout (Zoarces americanus) — would be the first transgenic animal approved for human consumption in the United States. But the mechanism for its approval, FDA’s new animal drug application (NADA) process, narrowly examines only the risks of each GM salmon compared with a non-GM salmon. This approach fails to acknowledge that the new product’s attributes may affect total production and consumption of salmon. This potentially excludes major human health and environmental impacts, both benefits and risks.
- cheaper salmon may lead to public health benefits - more Omega 3 - but detriments - amount of wild fish needed to feed the farmed salmon
Genetically Engineered Salmon Pose Environmental Risks That Must Be Considered Elizabeth M. P. Madin; Oxford Journals BioScience; 2011
- As the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers whether to approve the first genetically engineered animal to enter the American food supply (Williams 2010), we face the worrying prospect that approval will come without consideration of its full suite of potential environmental and ecological impacts.
- Escape by these salmon into marine ecosystems would pose a wide range of environmental and ecological threats beyond those of conventional salmon (Naylor et al. 2005) grown in farms (Krkosek et al. 2007) and ocean pens (Vester and Timme 2010). Larger fish at a given age or season may out-compete wild salmon, potentially reducing individual or population growth rates. Predator-prey dynamics could be disrupted both through lethal and nonlethal means. The larger-at-age engineered salmon are likely to be more effective predators. Importantly, even in the absence of lethal effects, the mere presence of larger fish predators has been shown to alter prey behavior, causing trophic cascades in marine systems that can dramatically alter seafloor structure. Such ecosystem alterations could potentially have unanticipated repercussions throughout the food web.
butterflies / Hixson et al / Rothamsted oilseed
Deformed GMO Franken-butterflies? Not so fast… Mark Lynas; 26 Apr 2016
- Scientists at the government-funded Rothamsted Research institute in the UK have been developing omega-3 fatty acids in the oilseed crop camelina, using genetic engineering to transfer the relevant genes into the target plant. The object is to develop a sustainable source of feed for fish farming: currently farmed salmon are dependent for these essential oils on fish harvested from the marine environment. To reduce the burden of overfishing we need a land-based supply of feed, hence the project. But how safe would this new GMO camelina be? Would the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA which are produced by the camelina affect insects consuming the crop? A new study published by Plos One aimed to examine this question, using lab-reared cabbage white butterflies, a pest of cultivated brassicas such as camelina. The study, authored by Hixson et al, fed their lab-reared caterpillars artificial feed, some with the EPA and DHA fatty acids, and a control group without.
Long-Chain Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Have Developmental Effects on the Crop Pest, the Cabbage White Butterfly Pieris rapae Stefanie M. Hixson, Kruti Shukla, Lesley G. Campbell, Rebecca H. Hallett, Sandy M. Smith, Laurence Packer, Michael T. Arts; Plos One; 24 Mar 2016
- Nutritional enhancement of crops using genetic engineering can potentially affect herbivorous pests. Recently, oilseed crops have been genetically engineered to produce the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) at levels similar to that found in fish oil; to provide a more sustainable source of these compounds than is currently available from wild fish capture. We examined some of the growth and development impacts of adding EPA and DHA to an artificial diet of Pieris rapae, a common pest of Brassicaceae plants. We replaced 1% canola oil with EPA: DHA (11:7 ratio) in larval diets, and examined morphological traits and growth of larvae and ensuing adults across 5 dietary treatments. Diets containing increasing amounts of EPA and DHA did not affect developmental phenology, larval or pupal weight, food consumption, nor larval mortality. However, the addition of EPA and DHA in larval diets resulted in progressively heavier adults (F 4, 108 = 6.78; p = 0.011), with smaller wings (p < 0.05) and a higher frequency of wing deformities (R = 0.988; p = 0.001). We conclude that the presence of EPA and DHA in diets of larval P. rapae may alter adult mass and wing morphology; therefore, further research on the environmental impacts of EPA and DHA production on terrestrial biota is advisable.
Genetically engineered food: Allergic to regulations? Nathanael Johnson; Grist; 30 Jul 2013
- What are the true risks of genetically modified foods spreading allergens?
Elle - Caitlin Shetterly - GMO corn allergy
No, You Shouldn’t Fear GMO Corn Jon Entine; Slate; 7 Aug 2013
- fear-based views are regularly reinforced by popular lifestyle magazines and the echo chamber of the Web. In the past two weeks alone, Details and Elle have run pieces that credulously stoke conspiratorial fears that the government is covering up evidence that GMO foods can damage the public health. Caitlin Shetterly’s long feature, “The Bad Seed: The Health Risks of Genetically Modified Corn,” in Elle—a magazine with more than 1.1 million monthly readers—was particularly appalling.
Examining the Impact of Expert Voices: Communicating the Scientific Consensus on Genetically-modified Organisms Asheley R. Landrum, William K. Hallman, Kathleen Hall Jamieson] Environmental Communication; 24 Aug 2018
- Scholars are divided over whether communicating to the public the existence of scientific consensus on an issue influences public acceptance of the conclusions represented by that consensus. Here, we examine the influence of four messages on perception and acceptance of the scientific consensus on the safety of genetically modified organisms (GMOs): two messages supporting the idea that there is a consensus that GMOs are safe for human consumption and two questioning that such a consensus exists. We found that although participants concluded that the pro-consensus messages made stronger arguments and were likely to be more representative of the scientific community’s attitudes, those messages did not abate participants’ concern about GMOs. In fact, people’s pre-manipulation attitudes toward GMOs were the strongest predictor of of our outcome variables (i.e. perceived argument strength, post-message GMO concern, perception of what percent of scientists agree). Thus, the results of this study do not support the hypothesis that consensus messaging changes the public’s hearts and minds, and provide more support, instead, for the strong role of motivated reasoning.
Genetically modified food opponents know less than they think, research finds Science Daily; 14 Jan 2019
- The people who hold the most extreme views opposing genetically modified (GM) foods think they know most about GM food science, but actually know the least, according to new research.
- The paper, published Monday in Nature Human Behaviour, was a collaboration between researchers at the Leeds School of Business at the University of Colorado Boulder, Washington University in St. Louis, the University of Toronto and the University of Pennsylvania.
- Marketing and psychology researchers asked more than 2,000 U.S. and European adults for their opinions about GM foods. The surveys asked respondents how well they thought they understood genetically modified foods, then tested how much they actually knew with a battery of true-false questions on general science and genetics.
- Despite a scientific consensus that GM foods are safe for human consumption and have the potential to provide significant nutritional benefits, many people oppose their use. More than 90 percent of study respondents reported some level of opposition to GM foods.
- The paper's key finding is that the more strongly people report being opposed to GM foods, the more knowledgeable they think they are on the topic, but the lower they score on an actual knowledge test.
- "This result is perverse, but is consistent with previous research on the psychology of extremism," said Phil Fernbach, the study's lead author and professor of marketing at the Leeds School of Business. "Extreme views often stem from people feeling they understand complex topics better than they do."
- A potential consequence of the phenomenon, according to the paper's authors, is that the people who know the least about important scientific issues may be likely to stay that way, because they may not seek out -- or be open to -- new knowledge.
- "Our findings suggest that changing peoples' minds first requires them to appreciate what they don't know," said study co-author Nicholas Light, a Leeds School of Business PhD candidate. "Without this first step, educational interventions might not work very well to bring people in line with the scientific consensus."
- The paper's authors also explored other issues, like gene therapy and climate change denial. They found the same results for gene therapy.
- However, the pattern did not emerge for climate change denial. The researchers hypothesize that the climate change debate has become so politically polarized that people's attitudes depend more on which group they affiliate with than how much they know about the issue.
- Fernbach and Light plan to follow this paper with more research on how their findings play into other issues like vaccinations, nuclear power and homeopathic medicine.
- This research was funded by the Humility & Conviction in Public Life project at the University of Connecticut, the Center for Ethics and Social Responsibility at CU Boulder, the National Science Foundation and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council.
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10 Bullsh*t Arguments Against GMOs Yvette d'Entremont; Cosmopolitan; 3 Nov 2016
- According to the internet, GMOs are responsible for a lot of problems. You’ve heard that they cause almost everything, including weight gain, acne, allergies, eczema, asthma, and maybe even cancer. They’re killing the bees, the butterflies ... And I’m hearing they’re also responsible for dementors, wingardium leviosa, and Voldemort. They’re the reason that jerk from Tinder ghosted you. And of course, they’re at least partially responsible for the collapse of the banking system and the Illuminati is using them as a tool to oppress the masses.
When was the last time you changed your mind on GMs? Colin Bettles; farmonline.com.au; 22 Sep 2017
- In the highly emotive landscape of Genetically Modified crops, proponents of the much maligned technology and users like farmers or others with legitimate commercial interests are often portrayed as the evil villains conspiring to inflict some wicked form of gradual poisonous demise on the planet, while rubbing their hands with glee.
- In contrast, members of the opposing camp who denounce biotechnology are all too often characterised as glistening champions of truth, protectors of small children, bastions of integrity standing up for everyday people, or white knights seeking to protect the very essence of life itself from being annihilated by GMs.
- But in an enlightening new documentary, ‘Food Evolution’, biotech scientists, GM farmers, truth-seekers and pragmatic thinkers with the capacity to respect and acknowledge robust evidence are the ones wearing the white hats while standing in the spotlight, shining a light on truth.
- And the shady black hats are placed on some of the anti-GM movement’s biggest and most influential players, like Dr Vandana Shiva or Jeffrey Smith.
Lecture to Oxford Farming Conference, 3 January 2013 Mark Lynas; 3 Jan 2013
- I want to start with some apologies. For the record, here and upfront, I apologise for having spent several years ripping up GM crops. I am also sorry that I helped to start the anti-GM movement back in the mid 1990s, and that I thereby assisted in demonising an important technological option which can be used to benefit the environment.
- As an environmentalist, and someone who believes that everyone in this world has a right to a healthy and nutritious diet of their choosing, I could not have chosen a more counter-productive path. I now regret it completely.
- So I guess you’ll be wondering – what happened between 1995 and now that made me not only change my mind but come here and admit it? Well, the answer is fairly simple: I discovered science, and in the process I hope I became a better environmentalist.
- When I first heard about Monsanto’s GM soya I knew exactly what I thought. Here was a big American corporation with a nasty track record, putting something new and experimental into our food without telling us. Mixing genes between species seemed to be about as unnatural as you can get – here was humankind acquiring too much technological power; something was bound to go horribly wrong. These genes would spread like some kind of living pollution. It was the stuff of nightmares.
- These fears spread like wildfire, and within a few years GM was essentially banned in Europe, and our worries were exported by NGOs like Greenpeace and Friends of the Earth to Africa, India and the rest of Asia, where GM is still banned today. This was the most successful campaign I have ever been involved with.
- This was also explicitly an anti-science movement. We employed a lot of imagery about scientists in their labs cackling demonically as they tinkered with the very building blocks of life. Hence the Frankenstein food tag – this absolutely was about deep-seated fears of scientific powers being used secretly for unnatural ends. What we didn’t realise at the time was that the real Frankenstein’s monster was not GM technology, but our reaction against it.
- For me this anti-science environmentalism became increasingly inconsistent with my pro-science environmentalism with regard to climate change. I published my first book on global warming in 2004, and I was determined to make it scientifically credible rather than just a collection of anecdotes.
- So I had to back up the story of my trip to Alaska with satellite data on sea ice, and I had to justify my pictures of disappearing glaciers in the Andes with long-term records of mass balance of mountain glaciers. That meant I had to learn how to read scientific papers, understand basic statistics and become literate in very different fields from oceanography to paleoclimate, none of which my degree in politics and modern history helped me with a great deal.
- I found myself arguing constantly with people who I considered to be incorrigibly anti-science, because they wouldn’t listen to the climatologists and denied the scientific reality of climate change. So I lectured them about the value of peer-review, about the importance of scientific consensus and how the only facts that mattered were the ones published in the most distinguished scholarly journals.
- My second climate book, Six Degrees, was so sciency that it even won the Royal Society science books prize, and climate scientists I had become friendly with would joke that I knew more about the subject than them. And yet, incredibly, at this time in 2008 I was still penning screeds in the Guardian attacking the science of GM – even though I had done no academic research on the topic, and had a pretty limited personal understanding. I don’t think I’d ever read a peer-reviewed paper on biotechnology or plant science even at this late stage.
- Obviously this contradiction was untenable. What really threw me were some of the comments underneath my final anti-GM Guardian article. In particular one critic said to me: so you’re opposed to GM on the basis that it is marketed by big corporations. Are you also opposed to the wheel because because it is marketed by the big auto companies?
- So I did some reading. And I discovered that one by one my cherished beliefs about GM turned out to be little more than green urban myths.
- I’d assumed that it would increase the use of chemicals. It turned out that pest-resistant cotton and maize needed less insecticide.
- I’d assumed that GM benefited only the big companies. It turned out that billions of dollars of benefits were accruing to farmers needing fewer inputs.
- I’d assumed that Terminator Technology was robbing farmers of the right to save seed. It turned out that hybrids did that long ago, and that Terminator never happened.
- I’d assumed that no-one wanted GM. Actually what happened was that Bt cotton was pirated into India and roundup ready soya into Brazil because farmers were so eager to use them.
- I’d assumed that GM was dangerous. It turned out that it was safer and more precise than conventional breeding using mutagenesis for example; GM just moves a couple of genes, whereas conventional breeding mucks about with the entire genome in a trial and error way.
- But what about mixing genes between unrelated species? The fish and the tomato? Turns out viruses do that all the time, as do plants and insects and even us – it’s called gene flow.
Mark Lynas – Speech to the Oxford Farming Conference 2018 Mark Lynas; 5 Jan 2018
- Five years ago, almost to this very day, I stood before you and offered an apology for my earlier anti-GMO activism. Today I want to do something different.
- Whereas my 2013 speech was something of a declaration of war against my former colleagues in the anti-GMO scene, today I want to offer an olive branch, to map out the contours of a potential peace treaty.
- For me it’s been a very intense five years. The 2013 speech really did change my life in ways I had never anticipated. I was accused of having been the global founder of the anti-GMO movement, and my stance was compared with being a rapist by one well known activist.
- I don’t like to run away from a fight, so since then I’ve devoted myself pretty much full time to the GMO issue. I’ve been to numerous countries in Africa and Asia and met farmers, scientists, activists and others on both sides of this very contentious debate.
- Don’t worry, I haven’t changed my mind again. And I’m certainly not about to apologise for anything. One apology is enough for a lifetime I think.
- However, I think the time for trench warfare has also passed. Extremists aside, most people on opposing sides of this debate have too much in common to allow ourselves to be polarised into perpetually warring tribes.
- For starters, pretty much everyone agrees that the current farming system is not sustainable and that we urgently need to improve it. Hands up anyone who doesn’t care about their soils or wants to keep spraying chemicals at the current high quantities indefinitely?
- Everyone also seems to agree that the situation is not black and white, that there are no silver bullet solutions and that we need to be more open-minded in looking at all the options.
- I’ve visited numerous plant breeding labs in the last 5 years and spoken to a lot of plant scientists. I have yet to meet a single one, including those using the various techniques of genetic engineering, who claim that GMOs are going to feed the world or magically solve all our agricultural problems.
- There is also a high degree of consensus that we need to address climate change, both in terms of its impact on food production and farming’s significant role in causing it.
- I also see a lot of agreement that we need to address dietary and nutritional failings – both in terms undernutrition in many developing countries and the consumption of too many calories in the industrialised world.
- In 2013 there were 775 million undernourished people in the world. Today that number has actually risen, to 815 million. Although this has fallen from over a billion the 1990s, clearly we are not getting to grips with this problem.
- On the other hand the prevalence of obesity has increased relentlessly. In North America and Europe more than a quarter of the adult population is classed as obese. This is not just a first-world problem – rates have been rising rapidly in Africa and Asia too.
- Although the area of arable land required to support a person has declined by half since the 1960s, we have not reached peak farmland as some predicted back in 2013. More land is still being brought into production each year, causing deforestation, soil erosion and biodiversity loss.
- World fertiliser production has also increased relentlessly, contributing to runoff pollution and eutrophication of both freshwater and marine ecosystems.
- Agriculture, forestry and land use combined are responsible for a quarter of global greenhouse gas emissions. These include the vast majority of nitrous oxide and methane emissions.
- So let’s be clear – no-one is saying that everything is hunky dory with world farming.
- But over the last five years I’ve become increasingly convinced that genetic engineering can at least help mitigate these problems.
- It is very clear, for instance, that insect-resistant crops have helped reduce applications of insecticide. Indeed this is precisely why farmers have been so keen to adopt them.
- Although they have yet to be proven at scale, nitrogen-efficient crops, from oilseed rape to rice, could help reduce fertiliser applications. Perhaps one day we’ll even see staple non-leguminous crops that fix their own nitrogen.
- Although I don’t want to get into the glyphosate debate here, it is also clear that the adoption of herbicide-tolerant crops has helped shift farming away from more toxic herbicides and facilitated no-till and conservation agriculture.
- But as a contribution to global sustainability these improvements have been marginal, trivial even. Genetic modification has not yet reduced fertiliser use, contributed significantly to higher yields, or done anything to address world hunger.
- Part of this is because genetic engineering has been blocked precisely where it could do the most good, in developing countries. I’ve sadly seen this at first hand too.
- In Uganda, anti-GMO activists spread myths that genetically modified bananas include genes from snakes and pigs, or cause cancer. In reality, the GM bananas were just intended to address a bacterial disease that is harming food security.
- In Tanzania I was heckled by anti-GMO activists a couple of years ago. They were saying that GMOs spread gay genes, causing homosexuality in African children as part of a sinister plot to reduce the population.
- In Bangladesh, I visited farmers who have adopted Bt brinjal, a genetically modified eggplant that produces the Bt protein to protect it against a devastating insect pest. This enables farmers to dramatically reduce the use of toxic insecticides, which are mostly sprayed by hand.
- Instead of welcoming the reduction in pesticide use, Bangladesh-based anti-GMO groups, who are all funded by the way from sources right here in Europe, travelled around telling these same farmers that their children would become paralysed if they ate the GM aubergines, and that they should instead go back to spraying insecticides.
- So it seems a bit rich for Greenpeace to claim, as it did in a recent report, that GMOs have been met with Twenty Years of Failure. As I’ve seen in the field, this failure has not been due to any inherent limitations in the science, but has come about precisely because of the success of groups like Greenpeace in campaigning against it.
- In my view you can’t campaign both against problems and against solutions and expect to be taken seriously. This has got to change.
- But if Greenpeace has got a lot wrong, so have the GMO promoters. I’ve spent some time researching the deeper history of this issue and I’ve become convinced that the launch of genetic engineering was badly mishandled.
- Monsanto was particularly at fault, back in the mid 1990s when it chose to push forward its Roundup Ready seeds despite the obvious risk of a backlash. I can’t prove it, but I bet that if genetic engineering had been launched primarily as a way to reduce pesticides, we in the environmental movement would not have opposed it in the way we did.
- This was especially the case given Monsanto’s unsavoury corporate history. In retrospect was it really a good idea for the company that helped supply Agent Orange to the US military in Vietnam to ask for our trust in launching a potentially risky and scary-sounding food technology in order to help it sell more weedkiller?
- It was also in my view a huge mistake for Monsanto to go anywhere near so-called Terminator Technology, and for it to ask farmers to sign an overly restrictive technology agreement that curtailed seed-saving and the perceived independence of farmers.
- Most of the current myths about Monsanto that circulate endlessly on the internet can trace their origins back to these bad decisions made at corporate HQ two decades ago in St Louis, Missouri.
- So while we can blame the anti-GMO activists of today for repeating untruths and damaging science, we should also ask those who botched the launch of genetic engineering to shoulder their share of the blame.
- What we surely need to do now is try to make sure we don’t get permanently trapped in a debate that was framed over 20 years ago. Things have changed, and we need to change too.
- So what might a peace treaty look like? What might be the give and take on both sides of this enduringly fractious controversy? Here’s my seven-point plan.
100 Nobel laureates
Laureates Letter Supporting Precision Agriculture (GMOs) Support Precision Agriculture;
- The United Nations Food & Agriculture Program has noted that global production of food, feed and fiber will need approximately to double by 2050 to meet the demands of a growing global population. Organizations opposed to modern plant breeding, with Greenpeace at their lead, have repeatedly denied these facts and opposed biotechnological innovations in agriculture. They have misrepresented their risks, benefits, and impacts, and supported the criminal destruction of approved field trials and research projects. We urge Greenpeace and its supporters to re-examine the experience of farmers and consumers worldwide with crops and foods improved through biotechnology, recognize the findings of authoritative scientific bodies and regulatory agencies, and abandon their campaign against "GMOs" in general and Golden Rice in particular.
A plea to Greenpeace Mark Lynas; blog; 30 Jun 2016
- You will no doubt have seen the letter signed by 100 Nobel laureates asking you to end your opposition to genetically modified organisms. I hope you realise what this means: a great number of the most prestigious and decorated scientists in the world are asking you to bring to a halt your decades-long war against biotechnology. I know you will be seriously considering their words. However deeply entrenched anti-GMO attitudes may be in your organisation, you cannot lightly dismiss the considered opinion of such a distinguished group of scientists as are 107 winners of Nobel Prizes. You should add to these individual voices the opinions of the National Academy of Sciences, which recently issued a landmark report on GMOs, and of numerous other scientific and academic institutions around the world from the AAAS to the Royal Society to the African Academy of Sciences.
Well Fed Hidde Boersma, Karsten de Vreugd, Philip Fountain; Vimeo
- We follow Netherlands filmmakers Hidde Boersma (also a scientist & science journalist) & Karsten de Vreugd who set on a quest to tell a story about GMOs that seldom reaches the general public.
Review: ‘Well Fed’ lifts the face of fear off of GMOs Ryan Tipps; AgDaily; 6 Apr 2018
- When two friends disagree about GMOs, they pledge to investigate the reality about the agricultural technology.
- That’s the premise of the documentary “Well Fed,” which sends two Amsterdam city boys on a journey to learn what they can about genetic engineering. One is Hidde Boersma, a scientist who sees remarkable potential in GMOs; the other is Karsten de Vreugd, a man who celebrates organic production and is skeptical of GMOs. They go from their native Netherlands to England and then to the farms in Bangladesh.
What are isogenic lines and why should they be used to study GE traits? The Mad Virologist; 2 Jan 2017
- There has been quite a lot of talk about the latest paper from Seralini's group that claims that there are substantial metabolome differences between genetically engineered corn and non-GE corn. The paper was published in an online journal run by the Nature group (and not in Nature as some websites are claiming). At first glance, this paper seems to detail some results that are seriously concerning. However, when one examines the methodologies used, several glaring issues emerge that challenge the conclusions reached from the results presented. Many others have addressed several of the methodological problems with this study, but I'd like to focus on the corn lines that they used and the claims that they were isogenic as the entire experiment hinges on using the correct lines.
- To start with, I need to explain what an isogenic line is as most people (even other scientists outside of the plant sciences) do not know what this is. When discussing isogenic lines, it's not a single line but at least two lines. Genetically, these lines differ by only a few genes but are identical beyond that. Achieving this is nearly impossible, so researchers will use near-isogenic lines (genetically these are at least 99% identical). Generally speaking, near-isogenic lines (NIL) are not available for purchase and must be generated. To do this, a donor plant with the gene of interest (in this case, the gene would be a GE trait like glyphosate resistance or Bt production) is crossed with what is called the recurrent parent (see figure below). Using genetic markers (in a process called marker assisted selection), progeny with the appropriate genes are then back crossed against the recurrent parent and the trait selected for until the progeny are 99% genetically identical to the recurrent parent. It takes time and effort to generate an NIL like this, and there simply are no shortcuts to getting there.
An integrated multi-omics analysis of the NK603 Roundup-tolerant GM maize reveals metabolism disturbances caused by the transformation process Robin Mesnage, Sarah Z. Agapito-Tenfen, Vinicius Vilperte, George Renney, Malcolm Ward, Gilles-Eric Séralini, Rubens O. Nodari & Michael N. Antoniou; Scientific Reports; 17 Aug 2016
- Glyphosate tolerant genetically modified (GM) maize NK603 was assessed as ‘substantially equivalent’ to its isogenic counterpart by a nutrient composition analysis in order to be granted market approval. We have applied contemporary in depth molecular profiling methods of NK603 maize kernels (sprayed or unsprayed with Roundup) and the isogenic corn to reassess its substantial equivalence status. Proteome profiles of the maize kernels revealed alterations in the levels of enzymes of glycolysis and TCA cycle pathways, which were reflective of an imbalance in energy metabolism. Changes in proteins and metabolites of glutathione metabolism were indicative of increased oxidative stress. The most pronounced metabolome differences between NK603 and its isogenic counterpart consisted of an increase in polyamines including N-acetyl-cadaverine (2.9-fold), N-acetylputrescine (1.8-fold), putrescine (2.7-fold) and cadaverine (28-fold), which depending on context can be either protective or a cause of toxicity. Our molecular profiling results show that NK603 and its isogenic control are not substantially equivalent.
Séralini paper: Molecular analysis shows GMO corn differs from non-GMO–Is difference meaningful? Genetic Literacy Project; 21 Dec 2016
- The GLP has asked independent scientists to review this study.
Indian farmers plant GMO seeds in civil disobedience ‘satyagraha’ protest Cornell Alliance for Science; 10 Jun 2019
- Some 1,500 farmers gathered in India today to illegally plant government-banned genetically modified (GM) seeds, which they say could improve their livelihoods and help reduce pesticide use.
- The farmers massed in a field in Akot, a village in Maharashtra, where they symbolically planted pest-resistant Bt brinjal (eggplant) and herbicide-tolerant cotton seeds in defiance of government regulations, according to Shetkari Sanghatana, a farmers’ organization that staged the grassroots protest.
- Lalit Patil Bahale, the farmer who made his two-acre field available for the protest, called the action a “satyagraha” — a term coined by Indian independence hero Mahatma Gandhi for campaigns of non-violent civil disobedience against unjust colonial-era laws.
- The action comes in the wake of the discovery that farmers in the state of Haryana have been planting Bt brinjal, despite a government moratorium on GM brinjal that was imposed in 2010 by the then Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh at the behest of anti-GMO groups.
- The farmers who were growing Bt brinjal illegally in Haryana have now had their crops destroyed by the authorities. In response, Shetkari Sanghatana says it supports “farmers’ rights to sow seeds of their choice.”
- The farmers gathering in Akot demanded that the government compensate the farmers in Haryana whose crops have been destroyed, and vowed that “in solidarity, the participants are raising money to aid all those who may be similarly affected.”
Maharashtra farmers defy ban to plant GM cotton TV Jayan, Radheshyam Jadhav; The Hindu; 10 June 2019
- Over 1,000 farmers participated in a ‘civil disobedience’ movement in Maharashtra’s Akoli Jahagir village on Monday, sowing genetically modified HTBT cotton to protest the Centre’s ban on GM crops. Farmers’ body Shetkari Sanghatana has decided to take the movement across the State, with farmers defying the ban to cultivate HTBT cotton and Bt brinjal. The message will also be spread via social media.
- “About 1,500 farmers came together in Akoli Jahagir village in Akola district of Vidarbha region to protest against the government’s policy towards GM crops,” Shetkari Sanghatana President Anil Ghanwat told BusinessLine. “We sowed HTBT cotton on a 2-acre plot owned by a local farmer. We couldn’t sow Bt brinjal as we couldn’t get the seeds. The police were present on the occasion, but they didn’t take any action against us. We are taking this movement to all parts of the State.”
- The carrying, storing, selling or sowing of banned GM crops invites a ₹1-lakh fine and five years’ imprisonment. Farmers who participated in the protest said the government was free to take action against them, but they would continue to defy the ban. However, the State machinery has not reacted to the development yet.
- Ghanwat said HTBT cotton cultivation had already been in practice in Maharashtra. “Till date farmers were sowing HTBT cotton secretively. Now we will do it openly. The ban on GM crops is atrocious on farmers who are reeling under poverty,” he added, asserting that “vested interests” were opposing Bt cotton and Bt brinjal.
- In the past, the State government had seized tonnes of HTBT cotton seeds from various parts of the State, including the Vidarbha region, where farmer suicides are rampant.
- Violation of law: Experts
- While the Centre has not indicated whether it is contemplating any action against the Maharashtra farmers, experts said that the farmers had not only broken the law but also made the country breach international biosafety conventions.
- “This is a blatant violation of the law of the land. There is a scientific procedure to be followed for releasing new seeds for cultivation,” said Suman Sahai, activist and founder of Gene Campaign, an organisation that has strong views on transgenic crops. Attempts to get officials of the Environment Ministry — responsible for biosafety — or the Agriculture Ministry — clearing seeds for cultivation — to comment did not yield any result.
- Deepak Pental, biotechnologist and former vice chancellor of the University of Delhi, agreed that breaking the law cannot be condoned, but said the farmers resorted to such a drastic step because little is being done to save their crops from pests and pathogens.
- Sahai said that if the government was not taking action against the farmers, it was breaching a commitment to international biosafety conventions such as the Cartagena Protocol.
- Pental, on the other hand, argued that so far no transgenic crop has been found to do any environmental harm. The real tragedy, he said, was the slow decision making process, which is costing farmers very dearly.
What’s behind the science denial of anti-GM activists? Sanjeev Sabhlok; Times of India; 15 Jun 2019
- Just over a week ago I responded to Kavitha Kuruganti’s refutation of my advocacy of Bt brinjal. My response was informed by consultation with a few of India’s top scientists.
- Since I wanted to know from Kavitha whether I had adequately addressed her concerns, I added her to a google group on which I engage with scientists and senior journalists. To ensure comprehensive consultation, I also added Rajesh Krishnan (of Coalition For A GM Free India) and my 2013 acquaintance Devinder Sharma who also opposes GM.
- Unfortunately, despite repeated reminders, there was complete silence from them all. They don’t want to engage directly with scientists. Instead, one of them sent my request to Aruna Rodrigues who responded on their behalf. Her points were mainly those that I had already addressed. Nevertheless, I compiled a detailed response to her, as well.
- In the meantime, though, Aruna shot off an email to the Government of India claiming that I’ve been “inciting ferment” and “acting seditiously”. Separately, Vandana Shiva vented her fury at the farmers who undertook civil disobedience on 10 June 2019 and called them “criminals”. But there is a huge difference between criminal and political action. Civil disobedience is purely political. It is used when a government fails to listen to reason or becomes oppressive, without any hope of redress from petitions and parliamentary processes. Politics begins when the people have had it to their teeth and decide to publicly disobey an unjust law in order to demand a review.
- This civil disobedience has “regularised” the mass-scale disobedience of the law that has been going on for years. Studies have confirmed that a large proportion of farmers have been planting “banned” seeds, despite these seeds being very costly. Who can blame farmers for working to increase their incomes, for it is a matter of life and death for them. Moreover, the science is on their side. So the law is the problem, not the farmers. The government now has a choice: either jail them all (millions of them) or change the law.
- Earlier, anti-GMO activists had demanded that police should attend the rally and arrest the protesting farmers. In advance of the action, Rajesh Krishnan of the Coalition for GM-free India said that “any such action will constitute criminal breach of the GMO biosafety law and will be confronted with police action/fines/arrest as appropriate.”
- According to reports, police did arrive but left without making any arrests, and the GM seeds were planted without hindrance as the chanting farmers looked on.
- Many Indian farmers point to neighboring Bangladesh, where tens of thousands of smallholder farmers have adopted Bt brinjal, enabling them to slash their use of pesticides.
- “A dozen GM crops like maize, soya, cotton have been planted across the world, and millions of people and livestock have been eating these for the past two decades,” said Anil Ghanwat, president of Shetkari Sanghatana. “There is no evidence of any adverse health impact on either humans or animals.
- “Contrary to claims that GM is polluting the environment, it’s in reality reducing the use of pesticides that harm many beneficial insects. GM is actually enhancing biodiversity, and by lowering crop losses it is reducing the need of bringing more land under agriculture.”
- The group also relayed that a decision had been taken to roll out similar campaigns of civil disobedience across the country in days and weeks to come.
Genetic Roulette Academics Review
- Genetic Roulette is Jeffrey Smith’s second self-published book in which he makes unsubstantiated claims against biotechnology. In it, he details 65 separate claims that the technology causes harm in a variety of ways. On these pages each of those claims – addressed in the same eight “sections” that correspond directly with the book – are stacked up against peer-reviewed science.
Anatomy Of A Smear Attack on GMO Supporting Scientists Jon Entine & Val Giddings; Huffington Post; 3 Apr 2015
- Recently on the Huffington Post we came across a disturbing article - an attack by Jeffrey Smith on two respected university professors who apply a critical eye to the claims made by various advocates alleging dangers to human health linked to genetically modified organisms (GMOs.) Smith, if you are not familiar with him, heads up a one-man band rabidly anti-GMO organization known as the Institute for Responsible Technology—he and his organization are controversial to say the least, but more on that later.
“A Blatant Display of Unscientific Propaganda:” Cornell Student Exposes GMO Propaganda in Scathing New Letter Nick Meyer; Alt Health Works; 22 Aug 2016
- My name is Robert, and I am a Cornell University undergraduate student. However, I’m not sure if I want to be one any more. Allow me to explain. Cornell, as an institution, appears to be complicit in a shocking amount of ecologically destructive, academically unethical, and scientifically deceitful behavior. Perhaps the most potent example is Cornell’s deep ties to industrial GMO agriculture, and the affiliated corporations such as Monsanto. I’d like to share how I became aware of this troubling state of affairs.
ONE ON ONE THREAD between Robert Schooler and Marc Brazeau Food and Farm Discussion Lab; facebook; 9 Aug 2016
Federico Infascelli - GMOs, goats study
RETRACTED: Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Activity in Kids Born from Goats Fed Genetically Modified Soybean Scientific Research; Jun 2013
- Short Retraction Notice
- The paper does not meet the standards of "Food and Nutrition Sciences".
- This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. The aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.
Paper claiming GMO dangers retracted amid allegations of data manipulation Retraction Watch; 17 Jan 2016
- One paper by Infascelli has been retracted from Food and Nutrition Science, “Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Activity in Kids Born from Goats Fed Genetically Modified Soybean.” The retraction note says the paper was pulled for duplication:
- The article has been retracted due to the investigation of complaints received against it. The data of figure 1(b) came from the previous published paper by Tudisco R, Mastellone V, Cutrignelli MI, Lombardi P, Bovera F, Mirabella N, Piccolo G, Calabrò S, Avallone , Infascelli F. Animal.“Fate of transgenic DNA and evaluation of metabolic effects in goats fed genetically modified soybean and in their offsprings”4(10):1662-71, 2010. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and we treat all unethical behavior such as plagiarism seriously.
Retraction notice for GMO paper updated to include fraud Retraction Watch; 12 Oct 2016
- Here is the updated version of the retraction notice for “Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase Activity in Kids Born from Goats Fed Genetically Modified Soybean:”
- This paper involves in data fabrication so it does not meet the standard for publication. This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE’s Retraction Guidelines. Aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics.
Norway - GenØk
How Norway Became an Anti-GMO Powerhouse Øystein Heggdal and Liv Langberg; Food and Farm Discussion Lab; 14 Oct 2016
- Eight years, $3.6 million a year, 40 employees, zero knowledge back. This is the story of GenØk and the politicization of science in Norway.
New York Times - Danny Hakim
Doubts About the Promised Bounty of Genetically Modified Crops DANNY HAKIM; New York Times; 29 Oct 2016
- an extensive examination by The New York Times indicates that the debate has missed a more basic problem — genetic modification in the United States and Canada has not accelerated increases in crop yields or led to an overall reduction in the use of chemical pesticides
The tiresome discussion of initial GMO expectations Andrew Kniss; Weed Control Freaks; 30 Oct 2016
- A new article in the New York Times has questioned the benefits associated with genetically engineered crops (which I’ll call GMOs for brevity). The response to the article has been pretty predictable; folks who don’t like GMOs are circulating it to say “I told you so.” And ag-twitter has exploded with claims that the New York Times is biased against the technology. The article makes some reasonable points that GMO crops are not a ‘silver bullet’ cure all technology. But almost any reasonable person has already acknowledged that. In a nutshell, the article has 2 main conclusions: GMO crops don’t yield more, and GMO crops haven’t reduced pesticide use. These two items were initially claimed as reasons to invest in and adopt GMO crops, and for many years, we’ve been hearing about how these crops either have or have not met the initial expectations. Danny Hakim looked at some data and has come down pretty solidly on the side of “have not” met expectations.
Rehashing a Tired Argument Kevin Folta; blog; 30 Oct
- The author here returns to two well-refuted, ancient criticisms. First, that genetically engineered crops fail to yield, and next, that they don't cut "pesticides".
The Times Gets it Wrong on GMOs Steven Novella; The Ness; 31 Oct 2016
- A recent New York Times article, in my opinion, is a good example of what happens when a journalist writes about a complex and contentious topic and allows their narrative to overtake the facts.
What the New York Times missed with its big GMO story Nathanael Johnson; Grist; 1 Nov 2016
- if you take the most mild interpretation of the piece — GMOs haven’t dramatically improved yields, but they are useful — then it’s really not news. Back in May, the National Academy of Sciences said the same thing with much more nuance and detail.
- If your takeaway from the piece is that GMOs just aren’t useful, then it runs contrary to loads of evidence — which the story almost completely omits. And it makes comparisons that sound compelling, but don’t actually tell you much about the state of farming.
- The article relies on a comparison of farm statistics from North America (where we grow GMOs) to farm statistics from Western Europe (where they don’t). The problem with this big picture focus is that the details on GMOs get really fuzzy. At the international level, there are so many variables — weather, pests, soils, economics, and farming techniques, just to name a few — that it’s near impossible to pick out the effects of biotechnology.
Hakim’s Effort to Skewer Biotech Crops in Sunday's NY Times Nina V. Fedoroff; OFW Law (blog); 1 Nov 2016
- Danny Hakim’s attempt to skewer biotech crops in his recent article on the front page Sunday’s New York Times (Doubts About the Promised Bounty of Genetically Modified Crops, Oct. 29, 2016) is skewed from beginning to end. His insight – what he says the debate has missed – is that genetic modification has not accelerated increases in crop yields.
- Well – duh! – they weren’t meant to. The two major modifications in widespread use today are resistance to certain types of pests and tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. These biotech traits were designed to be advantageous to farmers by decreasing their input costs through reduced use of insecticides, and reduced necessity for weed control. So citing yield data is simply disingenuous.
- It’s kind of like accusing the body shop that just fixed your dented car door of not making your engine run better.
- Nina has served on the National Science Board, the Council of the National Academy of Sciences, the Board of Directors of the AAAS, BIOSIS, and the Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Company; she served as President of AAAS in 2012.
Why we need to label GMOs Mark Lynas; 15 Oct 2013
Time for a compromise on GMO labelling Mark Lynas; 12 Jul 2016
Insect Resistance: Bt traits Biology Fortified Inc
- explanation and infographic on Bt GM traits
facebook post The Pragmatic Environmentalist; 29 Jan 2018
- Here one of our admins, Guido Núñez-Mujica, a biologist, eats some BT toxin, used in organic agriculture along Daniel Norero, a Chilean biochemist who runs the page Sí Quiero Transgénicos, I want GMOs, in Spanish. BT has a strong cumin-like taste, and it’s perfectly safe for humans, even if the dose consumed here is millions of times higher than is present in our food. Plants and bacteria make many natural substances used as insecticides in organic agriculture that are safe for humans. While this is a surprising demonstration of the safety of the BT toxin, eating a substance in large amounts it’s not a serious criteria for safety, as with all chemicals, is the dose what makes the poison, natural or not.
- The BT protein is produced in nature by the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. Since the 1920’s it has been used as an insecticide, as it is effective against moths, butterflies, flies and beetles, among other insects. The BT protein is harmless to humans, as its mechanism of action is based on the protein becoming active in alkaline environments, such as the digestive tracts of insects, unlike the mammalian digestive tract, which is acidic. Since it is an biological insecticide from a natural source, the BT protein isolated from bacteria culture is allowed in organic agriculture and is even injected inside certain plants.
- The gene that codes for the BT protein is used in genetic engineering to create plants that are resistant to pests and decrease the use of synthetic insecticides. Since the adoption of BT crops in the US, the use of insecticides has decreased by more than 80% in corn fields. In the case of the BT eggplant in Bangladesh, it has decreased the use of synthetic insecticides by a factor of 10 or more . It has also lead to decreased insecticide poisoning in Indian cotton farmers . The use of BT corn has been linked to less fungal toxins, as the fungi grow in the holes opened by insects in the corn kernels. Toxins like aflatoxin are proved teratogens and carcinogens and can be present in corn .
- 2 http://web.pppmb.cals.cornell.edu/resourceguide/pdf/resource-guide-for-organic-insect-and-disease-management.pdf#116
Review of "GMO Dangers: The Facts You Need to Know" Layla Katiraee - Biochica; FrankenFoodFacts; 28 May 2016
- review of article by Dr Jonathan Latham
- Jonathan Latham & Allison Wilson American Loons; 9 Jan 2014
- critique of Latham and partner
- Bioscience Resource Project critique of modern genomics: a missed opportunity Daniel MacArthur; Science Blogs - Genetic Future; 15 Dec 2010
- critique of another Latham piece
Insect resistance to Bt crops: lessons from the first billion acres Bruce E Tabashnik, Thierry Brévault & Yves Carrière; Nature Biotechnology; 24 Oct 2012; [doi:10.1038/nbt.2597 doi:10.1038/nbt.2597]
- Evolution of resistance in pests can reduce the effectiveness of insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) produced by transgenic crops. We analyzed results of 77 studies from five continents reporting field monitoring data for resistance to Bt crops, empirical evaluation of factors affecting resistance or both. Although most pest populations remained susceptible, reduced efficacy of Bt crops caused by field-evolved resistance has been reported now for some populations of 5 of 13 major pest species examined, compared with resistant populations of only one pest species in 2005. Field outcomes support theoretical predictions that factors delaying resistance include recessive inheritance of resistance, low initial frequency of resistance alleles, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants and two-toxin Bt crops deployed separately from one-toxin Bt crops. The results imply that proactive evaluation of the inheritance and initial frequency of resistance are useful for predicting the risk of resistance and improving strategies to sustain the effectiveness of Bt crops.
Pink Bollworm Strikes Bt-Cotton Dr. K.R. Kranthi; Cotton Association of India "Cotton Statistics and News"; 1 Dec 2015
- The pink bollworm is back with a vengeance. This insect was a serious concern for cotton in India about 30 years ago. There were very few reports of any major damage by pink bollworm to cotton since 1982 in the country. But all that has changed now. This year, severe damage to bolls by pink bollworm and yield-losses were observed in Bt-cotton in many regions of Gujarat and some parts of AP, Telangana and Maharashtra. More concerning is the fact that the worm is happily chewing up Bollgard-II-Bt-cotton which contains two genes (cry1Ac+cry2Ab) that were supposed to be highly effective in controlling the pest.
Bt cotton failure forces govt to promote native seeds live Mint; 5 Apr 2016
- With bollworm developing resistance to Bt cotton crop, the government has decided to promote cultivation of indigenous varieties of the crop in a big way this year. In 2015-16 crop year (July-June) [sic], there was a significant damage to cotton crop because of whitefly and pink bollworm pest attack in states like Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh.
Farmers may have been accidentally making GMOs for millennia New Scientist; 7 Mar 2016
- We have been accidentally genetically engineering plants – and eating GMOs – for millennia. That is the implication of a series of studies showing the ancient practice of grafting can allow even distantly related plants to swap all three kinds of genomes they possess. “It’s genetic engineering done by mother nature,” says Ralph Bock of the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology in Potsdam, Germany.
Wasps have injected new genes into butterflies David Shultz; AAAS Science Mag; 17 Sep 2015
- If you’re a caterpillar, you do not want to meet a parasitic wasp. The winged insect will inject you full of eggs, which will grow inside your body, develop into larvae, and hatch from your corpse. But a new study reveals that wasps have given caterpillars something beneficial during these attacks as well: pieces of viral DNA that become part of the caterpillar genome, protecting them against an entirely different lethal virus. In essence, the wasps have turned caterpillars into genetically modified organisms.
- “The key strength of the study is it clearly demonstrates that [viruses] have been a source of horizontal gene transfer for some insects,” says parasitic wasp expert Michael Strand of the University of Georgia, Athens, who was not involved in the study.
The genome of cultivated sweet potato contains Agrobacterium T-DNAs with expressed genes: An example of a naturally transgenic food crop Tina Kyndt, Dora Quispea, Hong Zhai, Robert Jarret, Marc Ghislain, Qingchang Liu, Godelieve Gheysen, and Jan F. Kreuze; PNAS; 16 Mar 2015
- We communicate the rather remarkable observation that among 291 tested accessions of cultivated sweet potato, all contain one or more transfer DNA (T-DNA) sequences. These sequences, which are shown to be expressed in a cultivated sweet potato clone (“Huachano”) that was analyzed in detail, suggest that an Agrobacterium infection occurred in evolutionary times. One of the T-DNAs is apparently present in all cultivated sweet potato clones, but not in the crop’s closely related wild relatives, suggesting the T-DNA provided a trait or traits that were selected for during domestication. This finding draws attention to the importance of plant–microbe interactions, and given that this crop has been eaten for millennia, it may change the paradigm governing the “unnatural” status of transgenic crops.
Documented Benefits of GM Crops International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications
- This Pocket K documents some of the GM crop experiences of selected developing countries.
- ISAAA is a not-for-profit international organization that shares the benefits of crop biotechnology to various stakeholders, particularly resource-poor farmers in developing countries, through knowledge sharing initiatives and the transfer and delivery of proprietary biotechnology applications. ISAAA's global knowledge sharing network and partnerships in the research and development continuum, provide a powerful combination of science-based information and appropriate technology to those who need to make informed decisions about their acceptance and use. In addition, an array of support services completes the holistic approach to agricultural development and ensures effective implementation and timely delivery of crop biotechnologies. These services include capacity building for policy makers and scientists; regulatory oversight on such issues as biosafety and food safety; impact assessment, and science communication.
Insect resistant GMO soybeans dramatically reducing pesticide use in Brazil Jack Kaskey (Bloomberg); Genetic Literacy Project; 8 Apr 2016
- Monsanto Co.’s new Intacta soybeans are not only killing bugs on Brazilian farms. They’re crushing demand for insecticides made by competitors DuPont Co. and FMC Corp.
- Intacta soybeans, which are genetically engineered for the Latin America market to produce their own insecticide, will be planted on 35 million acres during the current growing season, . . . That exceeds the company’s 30 million-acre forecast and is more than double the 15 million acres planted last year.
- Intacta’s success is hurting pesticide makers. DuPont last week said it won’t restart a Texas factory that makes Lannate insecticide partly because "insect resistant crops" have eroded sales. Intacta is causing “a structural shift in demand" for certain above-ground insecticides, said Brett Wong, an analyst at Piper Jaffray. The seeds are taking sales from chemical producers such as FMC, Dow Chemical Co., Syngenta AG and Bayer AG, he said.
- . . . .
- The intensity of crop-chomping bugs probably makes Brazil the largest insecticide market in the world, said Wong, who toured the country last week. Soybean growers in northern Brazil who normally make six to 10 insecticide applications a season require only one or two sprays with Intacta crops. Farmers in the central part of the country have less insect pressure, but still cut insecticide use enough with Intacta beans to make the additional seed cost worth the investment, Wong said.
Graham Brookes - Spain & Portugal maize study
Twenty-one years of using insect resistant (GM) maize in Spain and Portugal: farm-level economic and environmental contributions Graham Brookes; GM Crops and Food; 10 May 2019
- This study assesses the economic and environmental impacts that have arisen from the adoption and use of genetically modified (GM) insect resistant (IR) maize in Spain and Portugal in the 21 years since first planted in Spain in 1998. A total of 1.65 million hectares have been planted to maize containing these traits since 1998, with farmers benefiting from an increase in income of €285.4 million. For every extra €1 spent on this seed relative to conventional seed, farmers have gained an additional €4.95 in extra income. These income gains have mostly arisen from higher yields (+11.5% across the two countries using the technology). The seed technology has reduced insecticide spraying by 678,000 kg of active ingredient (−37%) and, as a result, decreased the environmental impact associated with herbicide and insecticide use on these crops (as measured by the indicator, the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ)) by 21%. The technology has also facilitated cuts in fuel use, resulting in a reduction in the release of greenhouse gas emissions from the GM IR maize cropping area and contributed to saving scarce water resources.
GMO insect-resistant Bt corn cuts pesticide spraying in Spain and Portugal by 37%, study shows Genetic Literacy Project; 6 June 2019
- Renowned agricultural economist Graham Brookes of PG Economics published the latest findings on the use of insect resistant maize in Spain and Portugal. The study covers 21 years, starting from when GM maize was first planted in Spain in 1998. From then on until 2018, 121,000 hectares of insect resistant maize were planted in both countries. This is equivalent to 35% of total maize area in Spain, and 6% in Portugal.
- The study also stated how GM maize has helped farmers grow more maize for food and feed while using fewer resources.It was also documented that planting GM maize decreased the use of insecticides [by 37 percent] and fossil fuels during crop spraying.
- Brookes also pointed out that there are still members of the European Union that opted to ban the cultivation of GM maize despite being approved for planting in [the] EU many years ago. These countries are said to be missing out the economic and environmental benefits of GM maize.
- Renowned agricultural economist Graham Brookes of PG Economics published the latest findings on the use of insect resistant maize in Spain and Portugal. The study covers 21 years, starting from when GM maize was first planted in Spain in 1998. From then on until 2018, 121,000 hectares of insect resistant maize were planted in both countries. This is equivalent to 35% of total maize area in Spain, and 6% in Portugal. The study also stated how GM maize has helped farmers grow more maize for food and feed while using fewer resources.It was also documented that planting GM maize decreased the use of insecticides and fossil fuels during crop spraying.
- In terms of farmers' income, planting GM maize has resulted to an increase in crop yield and the reduction of expenses for pesticide control, therefore providing farmers with higher income averaging €173 per hectare and an average return on investment of +€4.95 for each extra €1 spent on GM maize seed as compared to using conventional maize seed. This was proven to have helped farm household incomes and, in the long run, boosted the rural and national economies of both countries.
- While the use of GM insect resistant maize was proven to have contributed to addressing crop production, environmental challenges, and has increased farmers' income, Brookes also pointed out that there are still members of the European Union that opted to ban the cultivation of GM maize despite being approved for planting in EU many years ago. These countries are said to be missing out the economic and environmental benefits of GM maize.
Pellegrino et al
Impact of genetically engineered maize on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits: a meta-analysis of 21 years of field data Elisa Pellegrino, Stefano Bedini, Marco Nuti & Laura Ercoli; Scientific Reports; 15 Feb 2018
- Despite the extensive cultivation of genetically engineered (GE) maize and considerable number of scientific reports on its agro-environmental impact, the risks and benefits of GE maize are still being debated and concerns about safety remain. This meta-analysis aimed at increasing knowledge on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits of GE maize by analyzing the peer-reviewed literature (from 1996 to 2016) on yield, grain quality, non-target organisms (NTOs), target organisms (TOs) and soil biomass decomposition. Results provided strong evidence that GE maize performed better than its near isogenic line: grain yield was 5.6 to 24.5% higher with lower concentrations of mycotoxins (−28.8%), fumonisin (−30.6%) and thricotecens (−36.5%). The NTOs analyzed were not affected by GE maize, except for Braconidae, represented by a parasitoid of European corn borer, the target of Lepidoptera active Bt maize. Biogeochemical cycle parameters such as lignin content in stalks and leaves did not vary, whereas biomass decomposition was higher in GE maize. The results support the cultivation of GE maize, mainly due to enhanced grain quality and reduction of human exposure to mycotoxins. Furthermore, the reduction of the parasitoid of the target and the lack of consistent effects on other NTOs are confirmed.
After Two Decades of GMOs, Scientists Find They Live up to Their Promise Chelsea Gohd; Futurism;
- a new meta-analysis [...] shows GM corn increases crop yields and provides significant health benefits. The analysis, which was not limited to studies conducted in the U.S. and Canada, showed that GMO corn varieties have increased crop yields worldwide 5.6 to 24.5 percent when compared to non-GMO varieties. They also found that GM corn crops had significantly fewer (up to 36.5 percent less, depending on the species) mycotoxins — toxic chemical byproducts of crop colonization.
Does GMO corn increase crop yields? 21 years of data confirm it does—and provides substantial health benefits Paul McDivitt; Genetic Literacy Project; 19 Feb 2018
- The analysis of over 6,000 peer-reviewed studies covering 21 years of data found that GMO corn increased yields up to 25 percent and dramatically decreased dangerous food contaminants.
FOODS ENHANCED WITH PROVEN HEALTH BENEFITS NOT MAKING IT TO CONSUMERS QUICKLY ENOUGH Rothamsted Research;
- Professor Johnathan Napier, who pioneered the development of plants that produce heart healthy omega-3 fish oils, says that misinformation and over-regulation is stopping or slowing several GM foods with the potential to save lives from making it to consumers.
- He points to the example of Golden Rice, which has been genetically modified to provide more Vitamin A than other rice varieties and was first created by scientists nearly 20 years ago, with the initial concept developed at least 10 years before that.
- Writing in the journal Nature Plants, Professor Napier and colleagues argue, based on lessons learned by the whole sector over many years, that there are four main areas where issues may arise and impede the delivery of crops with nutritional enhancements to consumers: the economic value-chain, the patent system, the regulatory system and societal acceptance.
The challenges of delivering genetically modified crops with nutritional enhancement traits Johnathan A. Napier, Richard P. Haslam, Matina Tsalavouta, Olga Sayanova; Nature Plants; Jun 2019
- The potential for using genetic modification (GM) to enhance the nutritional composition of crops (for either direct human consumption or as animal feed) has been recognized since the dawn of the GM era, with such ‘output’ traits being considered as distinct, if not potentially superior, to ‘input’ traits such as herbicide tolerance and insect resistance. However, while input traits have successfully been used and now form the basis of GM agriculture, output trait GM crops are still lagging behind after 20 years. This is despite the demonstrable benefits that some nutritionally enhanced crops would bring and the proven value of GM technologies. This Review considers the present state of nutritional enhancement through GM, highlighting two high-profile examples of nutritional enhancement—Golden Rice and omega-3 fish oil crops—systematically evaluating the progress, problems and pitfalls associated with the development of these traits. This includes not just the underlying metabolic engi-neering, but also the requirements to demonstrate efficacy and field performance of the crops and consideration of regulatory, intellectual property and consumer acceptance issues.
Gen maize delivers ten percent higher yields Lucian Haas; Deutschlandfunk; 29 Nov 2019
- Advocates of green genetic engineering like to make use of the argument that genetic manipulation could help to feed the growing world population. Many insect or herbicide-resistant, transgenic varieties have also been created. But when it comes to directly increasing the growth and thus the yield of plants with the help of genetic engineering, the results have so far fallen short of expectations. It is all the more impressive that what US researchers recently reported: They changed a single gene called zmm28 in the genome of maize. In doing so, they achieved that the plants deliver up to ten percent more yield.
- “This gene is special because it is a so-called transcription factor. Transcription factors are the main regulator of what happens in the genome. As master genes, they turn a number of other genes on or off and have a major impact on plant growth. ”
- Plant physiologist Jeff Habben is a project manager at the biotech company Corteva Agriscience. For years, he and his colleagues have studied the effect of the zmm28 master gene in maize - and how it could possibly be increased.
- THE ZMM28 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACCELERATES PLANT GROWTH
- The researchers combined the gene in the laboratory with a new promoter and then slipped it back into the maize genome. A promoter is a section of DNA that determines when a gene becomes active. The new promoter increases the activity of zmm28, with visible consequences.
- “You can see that the plants grow stronger early in their development. With this more active gene as a transcription factor, they get, among other things, larger leaves. This allows them to capture more sunlight, produce more sugar and ultimately deliver more yield. ”
- Corteva Agriscience has tested this in field studies for three years. The researchers crossed their more active version of the zmm28 gene into 48 commercial feed maize varieties and cultivated them at different locations in the USA. The genetically modified variants consistently delivered three to five percent more yield compared to controls, with some even giving ten percent more. And that in a wide variety of environmental conditions, regardless of whether it is dry or with a good water supply.
- CROP YIELDS INCREASED BY THREE TO FIVE, SOMETIMES EVEN TEN PERCENT
- “Many different scientists have already worked with transcription factors. There are many studies that show that by changing the activity of these genes, plants can better deal with drought stress. However, if they are well watered, there is a loss of yield. But with zmm28 we had no negative effects. Even with an optimal water supply, yields increased. This is something unique so far and has surprised us. ”
- The zmm28 gene and the associated promoter do not come from bacteria or other foreign organisms, but from the corn itself. In most countries, however, the laboratory processes that the researchers use to manipulate genes are still regulated by genetic engineering laws. The maize varieties so bred would have to be labeled as genetically modified.
- YEARS WILL PASS BEFORE THE NEW VARIETIES ARE APPROVED
- Jeff Habben anticipates that it could take six to ten years to obtain the necessary approvals for cultivation worldwide. Appropriate applications are already in progress in the USA. The researchers' hope goes even further. You want to use the successful strategy of specifically changing the activity of a master gene such as zmm28 in order to increase yields, not just for corn in the future.
- "We believe that works. We know that such transcription factors also occur in other cereals. It could be worthwhile to apply this approach to other plants.
Field-grown transgenic wheat expressing the sunflower gene HaHB4 significantly outyields the wild type Fernanda Gabriela González, Matías Capella, Karina Fabiana Ribichich, Facundo Curín, Jorge Ignacio Giacomelli, Francisco Ayala, Gerónimo Watson, María Elena Otegui, Raquel Lía Chan] Journal of Experimental Botany; 11 March 2019
- HaHB4 is a sunflower transcription factor belonging to the homeodomain-leucine zipper I family whose ectopic expression in Arabidopsis triggers drought tolerance. The use of PCR to clone the HaHB4 coding sequence for wheat transformation caused unprogrammed mutations producing subtle differences in its activation ability in yeast. Transgenic wheat plants carrying a mutated version of HaHB4 were tested in 37 field experiments. A selected transgenic line yielded 6% more (P<0.001) and had 9.4% larger water use efficiency (P<0.02) than its control across the evaluated environments.
University of Arizona researcher turns off a potent corn toxin that stunts childhood growth, causes liver disease Tom Beal; Arizona Daily Star; 10 Mar 2017
- Monica Schmidt, a plant geneticist at the University of Arizona, has engineered a strain of corn that shuts off the ability of a plant fungus to produce aflatoxin, which can stunt childhood growth and cause liver disease. Schmidt said this particular genetic modification has the potential to improve public health and save lives in places like Africa.
- It can also prevent the waste of tens of millions of tons of grain that have to be destroyed each year because of the toxin’s presence.
- The assistant professor of plant sciences and researcher at the UA Bio5 Institute published her findings Friday in Science Advances, the online open-access arm of the journal Science.
- The procedure Schmidt and colleagues designed embeds a snippet of RNA from an aspergillus fungus into the corn plant. When the host plant and fungus exchange small bits of genetic information during infection, the ability to produce aflatoxin is shut down.
- The mechanism was 100 percent effective in trials, according to peer-reviewed results published in the journal.
- Because the procedure introduces genetic material from the fungus into the corn, it is classified as “transgenic” — and that has already caused funding problems for Schmidt’s research, which was conducted with a $100,000 Grand Challenge grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
Improving photosynthesis and crop productivity by accelerating recovery from photoprotection Johannes Kromdijk, Katarzyna Głowacka, Lauriebeth Leonelli, Stéphane T. Gabilly, Masakazu Iwai Krishna K. Niyogi, Stephen P. Long; Science; 18 Nov 2016
- Crop leaves in full sunlight dissipate damaging excess absorbed light energy as heat. When sunlit leaves are shaded by clouds or other leaves, this protective dissipation continues for many minutes and reduces photosynthesis. Calculations have shown that this could cost field crops up to 20% of their potential yield. Here, we describe the bioengineering of an accelerated response to natural shading events in Nicotiana (tobacco), resulting in increased leaf carbon dioxide uptake and plant dry matter productivity by about 15% in fluctuating light. Because the photoprotective mechanism that has been altered is common to all flowering plants and crops, the findings provide proof of concept for a route to obtaining a sustainable increase in productivity for food crops and a much-needed yield jump.
How turning off a plant's sunshield can grow bigger crops Erik StokstadNov; AAAS Science magazine; 17 Nov 2016
- Just because plants photosynthesize doesn't mean they can't get a form of sunburn—damage caused by overexposure to light. That's why all plants rely on a mechanism that defends against excessively bright sunlight by converting photons into harmless heat. But like someone who is slow to doff their sunglasses indoors, this botanical sun shield is slow to turn off when a shadow passes over a leaf. The result: Photosynthesis stays depressed.
- Now, plant biologists seeking improved photosynthesis—and, ultimately, more bountiful crops—have cleverly manipulated plants to adjust more quickly to shade. Genetically engineered into tobacco plants, the faster response yielded up to a 20% increase in biomass. The proof-of-concept study, which appears today in Science, is "ground-breaking" and the first convincing field trial in the hot area of engineering photosynthesis, says Robert Furbank, an integrative plant biologist at the Australian National University in Canberra.
Genetic breakthrough: Crops use more sunlight to grow Victoria Gill; BBC News; 17 Nov 2016
- Scientists have improved "the most important biological process on the planet" - photosynthesis.
Scientists apply for GM wheat trial in UK Pallab Ghosh; BBC News; 4 Nov 2016
- Researchers have applied for a licence to carry out a trial of a genetically modified wheat crop in a small field in Hertfordshire.
- The GM wheat converts sunlight into chemical energy (photosynthesis) more efficiently, boosting growth. If the government grants permission, the experiment would potentially be the second ongoing field trial in the UK. A go-ahead would indicate a softening in opposition to outdoor experiments to develop GM crops in Britain. The researchers believe that the variety has potential to greatly increase crop yields. The purpose of the proposed trial is to evaluate the performance of the engineered plants in the field. Approval could be granted by the end of January 2017 and the first crops could be planted next spring at Rothamsted Research in Harpenden.
Potato blight resistance
Genetically modified potatoes 'resist late blight' Matt McGrath, Environment correspondent; BBC News; 17 Feb 2014
- British scientists have developed genetically modified potatoes that are resistant to the vegetable's biggest threat - blight.
Improving cold storage and processing traits in potato through targeted gene knockout Benjamin M. Clasen, Thomas J. Stoddard, Song Luo, Zachary L. Demorest, Jin Li, Frederic Cedrone, Redeat Tibebu, Shawn Davison, Erin E. Ray, Aurelie Daulhac, Andrew Coffman, Ann Yabandith, Adam Retterath, William Haun, Nicholas J. Baltes, Luc Mathis, Daniel F. Voytas, Feng Zhang; Plant Biotechnology Journal; 7 Apr 2015
- Cold storage of potato tubers is commonly used to reduce sprouting and extend postharvest shelf life. However, cold temperature stimulates the accumulation of reducing sugars in potato tubers. Upon high-temperature processing, these reducing sugars react with free amino acids, resulting in brown, bitter-tasting products and elevated levels of acrylamide—a potential carcinogen. To minimize the accumulation of reducing sugars, RNA interference (RNAi) technology was used to silence the vacuolar invertase gene (VInv), which encodes a protein that breaks down sucrose to glucose and fructose. Because RNAi often results in incomplete gene silencing and requires the plant to be transgenic, here we used transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) to knockout VInv within the commercial potato variety, Ranger Russet. We isolated 18 plants containing mutations in at least one VInv allele, and five of these plants had mutations in all VInv alleles. Tubers from full VInv-knockout plants had undetectable levels of reducing sugars, and processed chips contained reduced levels of acrylamide and were lightly coloured. Furthermore, seven of the 18 modified plant lines appeared to contain no TALEN DNA insertions in the potato genome. These results provide a framework for using TALENs to quickly improve traits in commercially relevant autotetraploid potato lines.
Organic potatoes cause cancer (same for all potatoes except the new GMO potato) Wallace Kaufman; Chatham Journal; 10 Jul 2016
- article based on Clasen et al paper above
- Wikipedia article on Cellectis, parent company of Cellectis Plant Sciences who employ Clasen et al
As consumers shift to non-GMO sugar, farmers may be forced to abandon environmental and social gains Andrew Kniss; Weed Control Freaks; 12 May 2016
- So to summarize, GMO sugarbeet has reduced herbicide use, increased soil health, decreased risk of crop injury, increased yield, and has even allowed farmers to spend more time with their families.
Sweet Irony: The Environmental Impacts Of GMO Sugar Science Denial Kevin M. Folta; Science 2.0; 13 May 2016
- The sugarcane and sugar beet each produce the same final product. It is truly troubling that companies are being coerced into costly decisions that have no effect on what the consumer eats, other than raising its cost, and producing it with greater environmental impact.
Bt eggplant - Feed The Future Cornell University
- Over the past decade USAID supported the Agricultural Biotechnology Support Project II (ABSP II), a consortium of public and private institutions in Asia and Africa with support from Cornell University. ABSP II focused on safe and effective development and commercialization of bio-engineered crops as a complement to conventional agricultural approaches to help alleviate poverty, reduce hunger and boost food security, economic growth, environmental quality and nutrition in the partner developing nations. Over the project period, the consortium successfully developed fruit and shoot borer resistant (FSBR) eggplant (Bt eggplant) for Bangladesh and the Philippines. In 2013, Bangladesh commercialized Bt eggplant.
Bangladeshi Bt brinjal farmer speaks out in GMO controversy Md. Arif Hossain; Cornell Alliance for Science; 12 Jul 2016
- The Bangladeshi farmer at the center of a controversy on GMOs has spoken out to clarify his recent experience of growing Bt brinjal, the pest-resistant eggplant which is under the international media spotlight as the world's first genetically-modified food crop being grown in a developing country.
- The farmer also recounted being visited by anti-GMO activists from "several offices, to tell me adverse things about Bt brinjal. They gave me a book and told me that, 'Look brother, Bt brinjal has various problems'. They also told me not to eat this brinjal. They said if insects don’t eat this, it must not be a good thing for humans to eat. With my practical mind to counter them, I asked them that people take medicines for worms, the worms die, why don’t people die? They were not able to answer my question."
Bangladesh's Genetically Modified Eggplants Hidde Boersma, Philip Fountain, Karsten de Vreugd; Aljazeera
- multimedia account of GM brinjal in Bangladesh
Bt eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) in Bangladesh: Fruit production and control of eggplant fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee), effects on non-target arthropods and economic returns M. Z. H. Prodhan, M. T. Hasan, M. M. I. Chowdhury, M. S. Alam, M. L. Rahman, A. K. Azad, M. J. Hossain, Steven E. Naranjo, Anthony M. Shelton; PLOS One; 21 Nov 2018
- Eggplant or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a popular vegetable grown throughout Asia where it is attacked by brinjal fruit and shoot borer (BFSB) (Leucinodes orbonalis). Yield losses in Bangladesh have been reported up to 86% and farmers rely primarily on frequent insecticide applications to reduce injury. Bangladesh has developed and released four brinjal varieties producing Cry1Ac (Bt brinjal) and is the first country to do so. We report on the first replicated field trials comparing four Bt brinjal varieties to their non-Bt isolines, with and without standard insecticide spray regimes. Results of the two-year study (2016–17) indicated Bt varieties had increased fruit production and minimal BFSB fruit infestation compared with their respective non-Bt isolines. Fruit infestation for Bt varieties varied from 0–2.27% in 2016, 0% in 2017, and was not significantly affected by the spray regime in either year. In contrast, fruit infestation in non-Bt lines reached 36.70% in 2016 and 45.51% in 2017, even with weekly spraying. An economic analysis revealed that all Bt lines had higher gross returns than their non-Bt isolines. The non-sprayed non-Bt isolines resulted in negative returns in most cases. Maximum fruit yield was obtained from sprayed plots compared to non-sprayed plots, indicating that other insects such as whiteflies, thrips and mites can reduce plant vigor and subsequent fruit weight. Statistically similar densities of non-target arthropods, including beneficial arthropods, were generally observed in both Bt and non-Bt varieties. An additional trial that focused on a single Bt variety and its isoline provided similar results on infestation levels, with and without sprays, and similarly demonstrated higher gross returns and no significant effects on non-target arthropods. Together, these studies indicate that the four Bt brinjal lines are extremely effective at controlling BFSB in Bangladesh without affecting other arthropods, and provide greater economic returns than their non-Bt isolines.
GM eggplant can reduce pesticide use in Bangladesh Mark Lynas; Cornell Chronicle; 26 Nov 2018
- The first replicated field trials comparing genetically modified eggplant varieties with their non-GM counterparts in Bangladesh have confirmed the Bt gene confers almost total protection against this vital crop’s most damaging pest.
Bananas - Uganda
The GMO Debate: Let Africa speak for Herself Patricia Nanteza, 2015 Global Leadership Fellow; Cornell Alliance for Science; 24 Nov 2015
Africa and Uganda in particular can speak up for herself. Our leaders have the ability to listen to and understand the science of genetic engineering and its benefits to African farmers and families, and to ultimately make the right policy decisions. We do not need America to tell us that GMOs are good or Europe forcing us to ban them. All the GE research being undertaken in Uganda on bananas has over 95% Ugandan scientists doing the everyday work from laboratories based in Kawanda. The other 5% are partners in Australia and USA.
Cassava - Nigeria
Nigerian farmers welcome new cassava varieties: ‘My joy knows no bounds’ NKECHI ISAAC; Cornell Alliance for Science; 29 Mar 2021
Adeagbo noted that 2020 was one of the worst planting seasons that Nigeria’s cassava growers have ever experienced as rainfall delays hindered growth of the plant roots and farmers who could not afford herbicides and pesticides lost a huge chunk of their output to weeds and insect pests.
Angela Opara, founder of Chinonye Local Food Processor, agreed that the next planting season looks promising due to the release of the new varieties. The long shelf life of the NextGen varieties helps keep cassava from fermenting before it gets to the market, Opara said.
Opara — one of the farmers who participated in the field trials of the new varieties — noted the increased yield of the new varieties as yet another highlight to anticipate in the coming season. They are also resistant to cassava mosaic disease, bacteria blight and insect pests like cassava green mite, among others.
The cassava varieties approved for release — Game-Changer, Hope, Obasanjo-2, Baba-70 and Poundable — were developed by the National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) and the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), with support from NextGen Cassava, a project based in Cornell University’s Department of Global Development.
The five new varieties are meant to serve three different market segments: granulated and paste products (garri/fufu), cassava for industry (starch) and fresh market consumption, said Chiedozie Egesi, project lead for NextGen.
“It is no longer news that Nigeria is the biggest or largest producer of cassava in the world. What is important is, what is Nigeria making out of the production? Is Nigeria maxing out its potential to produce cassava?” said Egesi, who believes the new varieties can help revive the nation’s agricultural sector.
“Cassava is an important staple food in Nigeria, but the different uses of cassava are what we have not really harmonized. We are the highest producer of cassava but we’re still producing a quarter of what we should and that is where the project’s interest lies,” he added.
The five new varieties were developed with a tool called genomic selection, which uses mathematical modeling combined with DNA data information to select the best varieties for field testing. “Among more than 5,000 potential varieties that were developed we have five among them that we believe would move the cassava industry forward,” Egesi explained.
Prior to release, they were tested by more than 100 farmers in 13 Nigerian states that represent 10 agroecological zones.
The new varieties, which are conventionally bred, are high-yielding and can resist some of the worst cassava diseases and pests. Some varieties have other unique attributes that make stand them out on the market, including drought-tolerance and a consistently high dry matter content.
“You know when we talk about yield, we talk about yield per unit area per time,” Egesi said. “So, per unit area, if I used to get eight tonnes per hectare, which is the average yield of farmers in the past, we will be able to make it double and that is what the new varieties have shown to be doing. So, you’ve doubled your yield within the same area and time, that is really a jump on your income.”
Some of the new varieties also offer a consistent level of dry matter content, regardless of when farmers harvest.
“In the older variety when there is too much rain, the dry matter drops,” Egesi said. “Now the industry doesn’t like to buy those type of varieties, and when they do buy, they pay the farmers lower and they were losing [money]. But these new varieties give the farmers better value. That’s very important for us and that is what we want to achieve.”
Papaya ringspot virus wikipedia
- Hawaiian papaya production has been severely affected twice by PRSV. The virus was introduced to Oahu as early as 1937. The disease was mild for a number of years until it either mutated or a more aggressive strain was introduced around 1950. Within 12 years, the amount of land under papaya production dropped 94%. Production was then moved from Oahu to the Puna region of Hawaii island (the "Big Island") under strict quarantine. In 1971 PRSV was found in home gardens but efforts were taken to prevent its spread. The virus emerged in commercial farms in 1992 and by 1995 production in Puna was impossible. Commercial growers again relocated to the Hamakua coast but with only limited success. Hawaiian papaya production was halved by the end of the decade. Transgenic papaya varieties that are resistant to PRSV entered production in 1998 and resuscitated the industry.
Papaya: A GMO success story Tom Callis; Hawaii Tribune Herald; 10 Jun 2013
These vitamin-fortified bananas might get you thinking differently about GMOs Nathanael Johnson; Vox; 30 Mar 2016
- examination of Vitamin A deficiency and its effects (death as well as blindness), attempts to treat it and their problems, carotene-enhanced crops, golden rice and its controversy and technical problems, Ugandan VA-enhanced bananas, safety, industrial agriculture; plus a summary of pros and cons, and arguments around, GM
Huffpo Attacks GMO Bananas Steven Novella; 21 Apr 2016
- Eric Gimenez, writing for the Huffpo, recently wrote a typical anti-GMO piece, hitting many of the common themes. He focuses on the GMO banana with enhanced vitamin A, but his article reflects the poor logic, tortured arguments, and general anti-science of the anti-GMO crowd.
How “Open Source” Seed Producers from the U.S. to India Are Changing Global Food Production Food and Farm Discussion Lab; 19 Dec 2016
- The Open Source Seed Initiative, inspired by “the free and open source software movement that has provided alternatives to proprietary software,” was created to ensure that some plant varieties and genes will remain free from intellectual property rights and available for plant breeders in perpetuity.
discussion Vonda Stevens Kirkpatrick; facebook Food and Farm Discussion Lab; ~Aug 2016
Arkansas: Dicamba Off-Label Drift Puts Farming Neighbors in Awkward Position Ryan McGeeney, U of A System Division of Agriculture' AgFax; 15 Jul 2016
- dicamba off-label, drift, xtend, Monsanto, pigweed
- As farmers face mounting pressure from resistant pigweed, some are turning to off-label use of an herbicide, causing damage to thousands of acres of crops, according to complaints fielded by regulators in Arkansas and Missouri. At issue is dicamba, an herbicide that offers some control of resistant pigweed. If and when the Environmental Protection Agency approves, dicamba is intended for use on Xtend cotton and soybeans. Xtend cotton and soybeans were developed by Monsanto to resist dicamba. It’s been planted for the first time on a limited number of acres in Arkansas. Tom Barber, extension weed scientist for the Division of Agriculture, said reports of injury were concentrated in northeast Arkansas, although he had received word of similar incidents in Lee, Lonoke and Phillips counties as well. “What appears to be happening is that growers planted this technology, then decided to make off-label applications of dicamba over the top for weed control prior to the product receiving a full herbicide label,” Barber said. “This new technology was approved for export to China in the early spring, and released for cotton and soybean growers to plant without a formulation of dicamba herbicide labeled for use,” he said. “Given the resistant pigweed situation we’ve had, growers who planted this technology felt like they didn’t have an option for pigweed control, and they needed to spray something. “Roundup no longer controls pigweed, and now several populations across the state are also PPO-resistant, so products containing fomesafen, such as Flexstar, are no longer an option for pigweed in soybeans,” he said. Barber said the majority of injury to non-Xtend soybeans is likely coming from drift, tank contamination and volatility – a tendency of some formulations of dicamba to vaporize after application. Once vaporized, the herbicide becomes windborne and deposited on sensitive crops away from the original target.
Dicamba Drift Strikes Arkansas and Other Mid-South States Agricultural Council of Arkansas; 18 Jul 2016
- Arkansas and many other states are experiencing crop damage due to off-label use of the herbicide dicamba. It is believed that the release of new dicamba tolerant seed technology from Monsanto without approval for it’s proprietary dicamba based herbicide formulation has led to problems that have resulted from some farmers utilizing dicamba in a manner not approved. This unapproved usage has caused damage to thousands of acres of crops and increased work loads for the State Plant Board, which is tasked with fielding complaint calls and inspecting potential off target applications. While the seed was recently accepted for import from China, it has yet to be approved by European Union markets, and many grain companies have announced that they will not purchase dicamba tolerant seed without full market approval. Monsanto continues to seek approval for it’s new dicamba formulations, which they claim have far less volatility concerns from traditional dicamba formulations already available in the marketplace, and they believe the chemical formulations will be approved and available for the 2017 crop year.
Dicamba Drift and Potential Effects on Soybean Yield Tom Barber, Extension Weed Scientist; U of Arkansas Dept Ag; 7 Jul 2016
- Driving around the Midsouth, especially in the Missouri Bootheel, West Tennessee and some areas of Northeast Arkansas it is not hard to find soybean fields that look similar to the picture below. Several thousand acres have been affected by either drift, volatility, temperature inversions or tank contamination from dicamba herbicide applications. dicamba on beans4No matter how many times we have mentioned the potential off target issues with this herbicide, it seems to have fallen on deaf ears. Many producers planted Xtend cotton and soybean cultivars which are tolerant to dicamba herbicide this season; however, no federal label currently exists for any dicamba formulations to be applied at planting or over the top of this technology. Coincidentally this has been one of the worst pigweed years in recent memory, with the onset of PPO-resistant Palmer pigweed, especially in these regions mentioned. Many growers I am sure felt that they did not have a choice, either spray dicamba or lose the crop. Based on the number of acres affected, it appears that many fields of cotton and soybean containing this technology have been sprayed with an off-labeled application of dicamba either preemergence or postemergence or likely, both. In addition, the improved formulations of dicamba that reduce volatility are not available, so any dicamba formulations that have been sprayed to these fields are ones that tend to be more volatile which increases the potential for off-target movement. The result of these applications is damage on neighboring susceptible soybean and cotton fields that are not Xtend or tolerant to dicamba herbicide. Over the last two weeks we have received more phone calls than we can count wondering what to do and what to expect once this injury occurs.
- Fortunately we have had a graduate student working for the last two years on a project to answer a lot of these questions. We knew going in to this project that soybean was very sensitive to dicamba herbicide, but I don’t think we really knew how sensitive. Based on these data, the severity of yield loss from drift or off target movement of dicamba is dependent on two main factors: number 1- the rate of dicamba active that injured the beans, and number 2- the growth stage when the beans were affected. One important thing to keep in mind while looking at this damage in the field is that the full extent of dicamba injury may not be revealed until after 3 weeks from when the drift occurred. So fields will need to be monitored for at least 3 weeks after the first initial symptoms are revealed to evaluate the full injury potential.
Illegal herbicide use may threaten survival of Missouri's largest peach farm Bryce Gray; St. Louis Post-Dispatch; 14 Aug 2016
- While investigators from the state Department of Agriculture continue to search for an official diagnosis, Bader believes he is one of many area farmers victimized by dicamba, a drift-prone herbicide suspected of causing widespread damage to crops in southeastern Missouri and beyond. He says the farm’s typical harvest of 5 million to 6 million pounds may be reduced by 40 percent this year, as trees with withered or missing leaves have borne smaller fruit. Bader reports that almost 10,000 other trees mustered only walnut-sized peaches not even worth picking. He says the shortfall will amount to a loss of produce of $1.5 million to $2 million. Though dicamba has been around for decades, new technology is bringing it to the fore as weeds develop greater resistance to glyphosate-based herbicides such as Roundup. To combat them, Monsanto, the Creve Coeur-based biotech seed company, released genetically modified cotton that is resistant to dicamba in 2015 and, this year, started selling a variety of dicamba-resistant soybeans. But the company’s corresponding dicamba herbicide is still awaiting approval from the Environmental Protection Agency — leaving farmers without a complete package of products. Despite clear warnings forbidding use of dicamba substitutes, it’s believed that a number of farmers went ahead and sprayed other forms of the herbicide, hurting nearby farmers with non-resistant crops. Monsanto’s dicamba formulation seeking approval is supposedly less volatile, aiming to minimize drift. But at present, suspected drift from older, more volatile dicamba mixtures has plagued farmers around the region.
COMPLIANCE ADVISORY US EPA Office of Compliance Enforcement; Aug 2016
- High Number of Complaints Related to Alleged Misuse of Dicamba Raises Concerns
- Based on cropping patterns and the number of acres of non-resistant crops adversely affected, extension experts across the country believe that illegal use of dicamba products on adjacent or nearby dicamba-resistant cotton and soybean crops caused the observed crop damage. The EPA has not registered any dicamba herbicides for application at planting or over the top of growing cotton or soybean plants, including crops genetically modified to tolerate dicamba. Therefore, any application of a dicamba product during the growing seasons of cotton or soybean crops is unlawful under FIFRA. Unlawful applications of dicamba products can result in residues on harvested crops and affect the yields of non-target crops.
EU makes moves on three soybean events Willie Vogt; Farm Industry News Blog; 22 Jul 2016
- There's news today, announced by the U.S. Soybean Export Council, that the European Union has approved three biotech soy traits for import and processing. The latest three are:
- Monsanto's Roundup Ready 2 Xtend with dicamba and glyphosate tolerance
- Monsanto's Vistive Gold, which is a high oleic soybean with glyphosate tolerance.
- Bayer's Balance GT which offers tolerance to glyphosate and the company's HPPD inhibitor (developed with MS Technologies.
Mutation Breeding Wikipedia
BASF seeks GM alternative Chemistry World - Royal Society of Chemistry; 4 Feb 2009
- German chemical giant BASF has applied directed mutagenesis to develop crop plants that are tolerant to specific pesticides. Unlike traditional genetic modification methods, which introduce genes from foreign species, directed mutagenesis alters the genetic makeup of the plant through the natural process of gene repair - and so is less likely to meet resistance from regulators and environmental groups.
Organic GMO?! Know Ideas; Facebook
- Organic means GMO free right? Depends who you ask, and how you define GMO.
- (Jump to 3 minutes in)