Nuclear energy by state

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Nuclear power plants can be built practically anywhere on the planet, unlike hydro, wind, solar, wave, tide, geothermal etc which require appropriate geological and meteorological conditions. However their development around the world has been very different due to local political and economic conditions. Factors such as the power of fossil fuel and other anti-nuclear forces, and whether power plants are built by the state or private enterprise tend to be significant factors, alongside the wealth of the state and whether it is a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.


"Nuclear Power as a Solution to Climate Change: Why the Public Discussion is Such a Mess" Karen Street

Can our need for a carbon-free future override our fears of nuclear energy? Debbie Carlson; The Guardian; 12 Sep 2016

Unlike coal and natural gas plants that emit carbon emissions while producing electricity, nuclear generates none. So why aren’t more states getting onboard?

Tritium Radioactive leaks found at 75% of US nuke sites

Indian Point

Indian Point nuclear plant called "disaster waiting to happen" CBS News

New York's Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant Is Leaking, But You Shouldn't Freak Out Gizmodo

Working for Natural Gas Interests, Former Cuomo Aides Lobbied to Kill Indian Point Nuclear Plant Environmental Progress; 6 Jan 2017

Environmental Progress (EP) has learned that two top former aides to New York Governor Andrew Cuomo worked with a major Cuomo campaign contributor, the natural gas company Competitive Power Ventures, to close Indian Point nuclear plant.
The New York Times reported today that Indian Point's operator had agreed to close the plant, bowing to intense pressure from Cuomo.
Mention of the episode is an a federal criminal indictment filed by Preet Bharara, the U.S. Attorney in Manhattan, on September 22, 2016.
"Based on my review of publicly available documents and my interviews of witnesses," wrote the US attorney, "including employees of [Competitive Power Ventures], the importance of the [CPV Valley Energy Center] to the State depended at least in part, on whether [Indian Point] was going to be shut down."
The indictment suggests that Competitive Power Ventures and the Cuomo administration both recognized that if Indian Point were taken off line, it would be replaced by natural gas, not imported hydro and wind, as an anonymous source told the New York Times.

BREAKING: Closure of Indian Point Would Spike Power Emissions 29%, Reversing 14 years of Declines Environmental Progress; 8 Jan 2017

If New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo succeeds in his effort to close Indian Point nuclear power plant, carbon emissions will spike and the state will become more dependent on fossil fuels than it has been since 2000, a new Environmental Progress (EP) analysis finds.
EP finds:
  • New York's dependence on fossil fuels will rise from 44 percent to 56 percent of its electricity mix;
  • New York will lose 23 percent of its clean power;
  • Power sector carbon emissions will skyrocket 29 percent, from 31 to 40 million metric tons;
  • Twice as many emissions will be added as are required to be reduced under EPA's Clean Power Plan.
The replacement power for Indian Point is likely to come mostly from natural gas power plants, not renewables, including the CPV Energy Center, which is at the heart of a federal corruption investigation.
Indian point produces four times more power than all of New York's wind, and 236 times more power than all of New York's solar. New York is uniquely unsuited for solar, where it produces power just 15 percent of the year on average, according to New York's Independent System Operator

Diablo Canyon

Greens target license renewal for Diablo Canyon nuclear plant

Watts Bar

TVA's Watts Bar Unit 2 achieves commercial operation Ed Marcum; Knoxville News Sentinel; 19 Oct 2016

TVA began construction of the Unit 2 reactor in 1973, but stopped in 1985 because power demand had slowed, but costs associated with nuclear plants rose. TVA resumed work on the reactor in 2007 after deciding that it could be completed at a cost of $2.5 billion. However, TVA announced a revised budget and schedule in 2012, when the federal utility determined the project was $1.5 billion to $21 billion over budget and about three years behind schedule.TVA re-estimated that cost at nearly $4.5 billion with commercial operation to begin by June of this year. Since then, TVA managed to keep the project close to the new budget and schedule, although in February, the TVA board authorized an additional $200 million after flood prevention steps required after the Fukushima nuclear plant accident added to the initial cost.

The First U.S. Nuclear Plant In 20 Years Goes Online Zainab Calcuttawala; Oilprice; 19 Oct 2016

Roughly 650,000 homes in Tennessee will be powered by the first nuclear power generator to enter into commercial operation in the United States in 20 years, according to a new report by The Hill. The Tennessee Valley Authority’s Watts Bar 2 reactor will produce 1,150 megawatts of power, the company’s announcement on Wednesday said. The Nuclear Energy Institute counts Watts Bar 2, which formally connected to Tennessee’s power grid in June, as the 100th nuclear power reactor to operate in the United States.


Multiple milestones for Vogtle 3 and 4 World Nuclear News; 29 Mar 2016


Final Clean Power Plan Drops Support For Existing Nuclear Plants Jeff McMahon; Forbes; 3 Aug 2015



See also Energy Mix: Ontario

Report outlines Ontario nuclear refurbishment benefits and risks World Nuclear News; 22 Nov 2017

A new report by Ontario's Financial Accountability Office (FAO) has confirmed the province's plan to refurbish ten nuclear reactors at Bruce and Darlington, and extend the life of six reactors at Pickering will provide the a long-term supply of relatively low-cost, low emissions electricity over the period to 2064.
An Assessment of the Financial Risks of the Nuclear Refurbishment Plan looks at how financial risk would be allocated among ratepayers, the province, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and Bruce Power. The FAO estimates the plan will result in nuclear generation supplying a "significant proportion" of Ontario's electricity demand from 2016 to 2064 at an average price of CAD80.7 ($63.3) per MWh, in 2017 Canadian dollars.



In 2019 the European Union declared a Climate Emergency and acknowledged the need for renewables, nuclear and carbon capture and storage:

EU leaders include nuclear energy in green transition Samuel Petrequin; AP; 13 Dec 2019

European Union leaders agreed Friday that nuclear energy will be part of the bloc’s solution to making its economy carbon neutral by 2050, allowing them to win the support of two coal-dependent countries.
EU heads of state and government agreed that nuclear energy will be recognized as a way to fight climate change as part of a deal that endorsed the climate target. While Poland did not immediately agree to the plan, the concessions on nuclear energy were enough for the Czech Republic and Hungary to give their approval.
The two nations had the support of France, which relies on nuclear power for 60% of its electricity. They managed to break the resistance of skeptical countries, including Luxembourg, Austria and Germany to get a clear reference to nuclear power in the meeting’s conclusions.

However the the EU is also working on a taxonomy of sustainable energy technologies intended as a guide to investors to which projects to invest in. This taxonomy excludes nuclear energy on the grounds that there are as yet no long term assessments of the safety of long term repositories for nuclear waste.

In December 2019 James Hansen and others wrote an open letter, published in the Financial Times:

"Nuclear power is the single biggest source of low carbon electricity in Europe today and is recognised in many of the scenarios assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the International Energy Agency and other organisations as having a critical role to play in responding to the climate emergency (Brussels Briefing,, December 16).
It is therefore vital that nuclear is included in the EU’s new classification system for environmentally sustainable activities, which is being negotiated in Brussels. The “taxonomy” is supposed to provide clear definitions to fund managers and investors about which products are environmentally sustainable and which are not. For this initiative to serve its purpose of increasing the financial capital flowing to sustainable activities, financiers must have confidence that the definition of a sustainable activity is developed with rigour, robustness and in an objective way.
But progress is being blocked by several countries, including Germany, which claim nuclear should be excluded because of their concerns about nuclear waste. This is in spite of clear evidence that nuclear waste does not and will not cause harm to sustainability objectives. Nuclear energy displaces fossil fuel use, with significant air pollution and climate benefits. Without nuclear, there will be 500m tonnes of extra CO2 emissions every year in Europe, which is more than the emissions of UK or France alone. Without nuclear, our action on climate will be more difficult, more expensive, and more likely to fail. The real harm done will be to Europe’s ambition to achieve net zero by 2050."
James E. Hansen
Climate scientist and former director of Nasa’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies
Hans Blix
Former director-general, International Atomic Energy Agency (1981-1997), and former Swedish foreign minister
Martin Rees
House of Lords, London SW1, UK
Bryony Worthington
House of Lords, London SW1, UK
John Belgrove
Senior Partner, Aon
Kirsty Gogan
Energy for Humanity
François-Marie Bréon
Climate scientist and lead author for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s fifth assessment report
Ken Caldeira
Climate scientist, Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University, CA, US
Daniel Mosley
House of Lords, London SW1, UK
John Krebs
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, UK
Tim Stone
Former board member of the European Investment Bank (2003-2018)
Jeffrey S Merrifield
Former commissioner, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1998-2007)
Brice LaLonde
Former French environment minister and climate ambassador
José Gabriel González
Eric Ingersoll
Energy Options Network, US
Michael Liebreich
Liebreich Associates, UK
Jacopo Buongiorno
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US
Joseph Lassiter
Harvard Business School (retired), US
Robert Stone
Filmmaker and director
Daniel Aegerter
Chair, Armada Investment Group, Switzerland
Nick Spencer
Gordian Advice, UK
Janne Gustafsson
Ilmarinen Pension Mutual Insurance Company, Finland
Gilles Babinet
Representative of France in the EU Digital Champions group
Atte Harjanne
Member of the Parliament of Finland
Mark Yelland
Greens for Nuclear, UK
Staffan Qvist
Author, “A Bright Future”
Simon Friederich
Groningen university and co-founder of German Ecomodernists
Amardeo Sarma
Co-founder German Ecomodernists
Tea Törmänen
Chair of Finnish Ecomodernists
Take Aanstoot
Founder and Chair, Swedish Ecomodernist Society
Adam Błażowski
FOTA4Climate, Poland
Pavel Gajda
Institute of Sustainable Energy, Poland
Marc Deffrennes
Valerie Faudon
Nuclear 4 Climate
Myrto Tripathi
Voix du Nucléaire, France
Eric Maucort
Sauvons le Climat, France
Paul Bossens
100TWh, Belgium
Iida Ruishalme
Mothers for Nuclear
Rauli Partanen
Think Atom, Finland
Barbro Walker
Professor of childhood education, University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, Germany
Jenifer Baxter
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, UK
Simon Taylor
Judge Business School, University of Cambridge, UK
Anton van der Merwe
Professor of molecular immunology, University of Oxford, UK
T Ben Britton
Imperial College London, UK
Armond Cohen
Clean Air Task Force, US
Josh Freed
Third Way, US
Todd Moss
Energy for Growth
Ted Nordhaus
Breakthrough Institute, US
Tracey Durning
Energy Options Network, US
Suzanne Hobbs Baker
Fastest Path to Zero Initiative, University of Michigan, US
Jessica Lovering
Carnegie Mellon University, US
Eric G. Meyer
Generation Atomic (US)
Ben Heard
Bright New World, (Australia)

On 18th December it was reported that the EU had reached a compromise on the taxonomy:

EU lawmakers strike compromise on green finance taxonomy Madeleine Cuff; Business Green; 18 Dec 2019

MEPs and Finnish presidency of the EU Council agree a compromise on taxonomy regulation, ending tussle over whether nuclear can qualify as 'green'
The EU Parliament has drawn a line under a toxic row over whether nuclear energy could be considered 'green', after agreeing a compromise last night in talks over the EU's sustainable finance taxonomy.
The row, which threatened to derail the bloc's plan to push more capital into low-carbon projects, was sparked when some nations pushed for nuclear energy to be labelled as green under a new system to help investors spot green opportunities and avoid greenwash.
But other member states opposed the inclusion of nuclear, arguing its production of hazardous waste should rule it out of winning sustainability labelling.
Eventually lawmakers reached a compromise yesterday evening that recognises nuclear as a transition fuel. Nuclear companies are set to be judged under a new 'do no harm' principle for their disposal of waste that will likely exclude nuclear from the taxonomy altogether.
The taxonomy still needs the formal approval of Member States under the EU Council, but they are expected to grant their approval tonight, enabling the first rules to enter force in December 2020.
It paves the way for the taxonomy to enter use in the private financial markets, where the EU hopes it will help investors, pension funds and private equity firms to work to a standard definition of what counts as 'sustainable', in turn channelling more capital into greener schemes. According to the Financial Times, companies with more than 500 employees will have to publish how much of their activites are compliant with the taxonomy's three categories for sustainable investment: "green", "enabling", and "transition".

EU Parliament Puts Nuclear In Its Finance Mix Nuclear Street; 18 Dec 2019

Lawmakers for the European Parliament on Monday agreed to a transitional role for nuclear power in the coming decades with a compromise agreement that would permit member states to dip into a fund designed to support transitioning away from coal.
Nuclear power was included in a statement that said the European Council would “acknowledge the need to ensure energy security and to respect the right of member states to decide in their energy mix and to choose the most appropriate technologies.” The next sentence secured nuclear power’s role in the agreement that rolls the policy forward to 2070. “Some members have indicated they use nuclear power as part of their national energy mix.”
The argument over nuclear power pivoted on whether or not it would be classified as a green energy. The compromise allowed that it would be included in the agreement, but under the category of a transitional energy source.
Nuclear Engineering International quoted Czech Prime Minister Andrej Babis as saying, “Nuclear energy is clean energy. I don’t know why people have a problem with this.”
“This explicit nuclear mention was required by the Czech Republic and Poland. I did not need it. But it is true that one can’t ask countries whose domestic production relies for 60 or 70% on coal to switch to all renewable overnight,” said French President Emmanuel Macron. The French president also said that nuclear power was critical for avoiding the use of natural gas or turning to importing electricity.





Nuclear Power in Finland Wikipedia

Finland Plans Phaseout Of Coal With Nuclear To Help Fill Gap Neutron Bytes; 10 Sep 2017

(NucNet) Finland will introduce legislation in 2018 to phase out coal and increase carbon taxes with additional nuclear capacity from two new reactors.
Riku Huttunen, director-general of Finland’s Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment, told Reuters that the current strategy is to get rid of coal by 2030 and that the process will be started by legislation due next year.
According to the International Energy Agency, Finland is highly dependent on imported fossil fuels – coal, oil and gas – with coal producing about 10% of the country’s consumption.
To cope with the gap left by coal, Finland will have to increase the amount of energy produced from other fuel sources, Mr Huttunen was quoted as saying.
Nuclear power could take up the slack as two new reactors – the Olkiluoto-3 EPR and the Russia-supplied Hanhikivi-1– are scheduled to come online in 2018 and 2024.
Finland wants to increase its energy security by relying less on imports. Around 70% of coal is imported from Russia. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, Finland’s four existing nuclear units at Olkiluoto and Loviisa accounted for almost 34% of electricity production in 2016.


Belgium to give iodine pills to entire population in case of nuclear disaster Jess Staufenberg; Independent; 29 Apr 2016

'We know they don't really have a grip on the terrorist situation in Belgium,' a Green Party MEP has said

Belgium closes down its nuclear plants by 2025 The Brussels Times; 29 Oct 2019

By the end of 2025, the Belgian nuclear plants will have to be closed down, but it is unclear how possible power shortages can be avoided.
The government proposes a ‘Capacity Remuneration Mechanism’ (CRM), in which companies that produce extra energy or reduce their consumption, can enter an auction for compensation from the government.
The government wants to present the dossier to the EU in mid-December, but nobody knows yet what the CRM will look like, and who will pay for it.
Electrabel’s chairman, Johnny Thijs, calls for three of the seven nuclear power plants to be kept open longer, New Mobility reports.
Several scientists call for the same solution. “But that is not a guarantee for supply,” says Sara Van Dyck, of the ecologist’s federation Bond Beter Leefmilieu. “We have seen that these nuclear power plants are often out of order.”
Climate plan
The government hasn’t revealed exactly how much capacity Belgium will auction off. But first, it will have to present a climate plan that shows which energy measures it is taking.
If this plan has to be reworked to obtain approval, the CRM plan will have to be put on hold.
Not only gas-fired power stations but also renewable energy is eligible for support, as are companies that are prepared to use less energy at certain times.
Minister Marghem says that she is working hard on these implementing decrees. “We first have to take it to the Council of Ministers before we submit it to Europe for pre-notification,” she says through her spokesman.


Vattenfall sues Germany over phase-out policy World Nuclear News; 16 Oct 2016

Swedish utility Vattenfall is suing Germany at the Washington-based International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes over the closure of the Brunsbüttel and Krümmel nuclear power plants. The move follows the German government's decision to withdraw from nuclear power in the wake of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Vattenfall spokesman Magnus Kryssare declined to confirm German media reports that the Swedish company is seeking €4.7 billion ($6 billion) in damages.

Swedish Utility Suing Germany Over Closure Of Brunsbüttel & Krümmel Nuclear Power Plants Glenn Meyers; Cleantechnica; 17 Oct 2016


As Poland Exits Coal, a Billionaire Offers First Nuclear Plant Maciej Martewicz, Konrad Krasuski; Bloomberg; 22 Oct 2019

Poland’s second-richest man may beat the government in building the nation’s first nuclear power plant.
Michal Solowow’s Synthos SA, the second-largest European maker of synthetic rubber, signed a memorandum with GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy to build a small 300-megawatt reactor next to the company’s factory in southern Poland, which could be completed as early as 2027. That’s six years earlier than the government expects to build its first plant in a plan to construct at least 6 gigawatts of nuclear and cut the nation’s reliance on coal for electricity generation.
“Small modular reactors can play a significant role in addressing Poland’s energy challenges,” Sololow said Tuesday in a statement. They “will improve our chances to move away from coal and have a positive impact on our industry and nation.”
Poland, which gets about 80% of its electricity from burning coal, is slowly coming to terms with the fact that it has no choice but to shed the dirty fuel to meet European Union climate goals. To do so, it’s energy policy is counting on gas, offshore wind, solar energy and nuclear, which it sees generating about 20% of its needs by 2040.
Solowow hopes that GE’s small modular reactor will be licensed in North America in 2024, which would would allow the company to build the unit in 2027, he said by telephone on Tuesday. Katherine Poseidon, a European policy analyst at BloombergNEF, said she doesn’t expect the first SMR to be online before 2026.
Solowow, whose energy-intensive businesses also produce ceramic tiles and wood flooring, seeks to produce cheaper and cleaner electricity than coal, which is becoming more expensive in power generation as the EU’s climate policy makes carbon-dioxide permits more expensive. The richest Pole, Zygmunt Solorz, earlier this year announced a push to promote green solutions.
The estimated costs of large nuclear projects in France, the U.K. and Finland have repeatedly been increased. Poland’s Energy Ministry in the 2040 policy published last year doubted that small reactors could be used any time soon and said investing in them would be “irrational.”
GE Hitachi says that small reactors are as much as 60% less expensive to build than regular ones and could compete with gas-fired plants and renewable energy.
“Small modular reactor technology is still a long way from commercialization,” BNEF’s Poseidon said. “It is definitely a big step for Poland -- it shows they’re serious about developing zero-carbon power generating capacity.”


Poll finds support for nuclear phaseout Urs Geiser;; 21 Oct 2016

A proposal to decommission Switzerland’s nuclear power plants by 2029 has the backing of a majority of citizens, according to a survey conducted seven weeks ahead of a nationwide vote. Despite this, pollsters believe the initiative is likely to be defeated on November 27.


See Nuclear energy in the UK


Nuclear Power in China Wikipedia

Fourth Ningde unit connected to grid World Nuclear News; 31 Mar 2016

Unit 4 at the Ningde nuclear power plant in China's Fujian province has been connected to the electricity grid, China General Nuclear (CGN) announced yesterday. The 1087 MWe CPR-1000 pressurized water reactor was connected to the grid at 11.02pm on 29 March, CGN said. Work on the nuclear island at Ningde 4 officially began in September 2010. The dome of its reactor building was successfully lowered into place in May 2012. Four Chinese-designed CPR-1000 units have been built as Phase I of the Ningde plant, near Fuding city. Work on the first unit started in February 2008, with construction of units 2 and 3 beginning in November 2008 and January 2010, respectively. Unit 1 began commercial operation in April 2013, while unit 2 began supplying electricity to the grid in January 2014. Unit 3 came online in June 2015.

Grid connection for Hongyanhe 4 World Nuclear News; 1 Apr 2016

Unit 4 of the Hongyanhe nuclear power plant in China's Liaoning province today began supplying electricity to the grid. The reactor is expected to enter commercial operation later this year. The 1087 MWe CPR-1000 pressurized water reactor was connected to the grid at 9.52am today, China General Nuclear (CGN) said. Its grid connection came just two days after the connection of unit 4 at CGN's Ningde plant in Fujian province. Construction of Phase I of the Hongyanhe plant, comprising four CPR-1000 pressurized water reactors, began in August 2009. Units 1 and 2 have been in commercial operation since June 2013 and May 2014, respectively, while unit 3 entered commercial operation last August.

The nuclear option Nature (editorial) 4 May 2016

China is vigorously promoting nuclear energy, but its pursuit of reprocessing is misguided.

Hualong One

China Adapted US and European Nuclear Reactor Technology at Four Times Lower Cost Brian Wang; Next Big Future; 30 Apr 2019

China will start operating two new large Hualong nuclear reactors this year and another two next year. Each Hualong nuclear reactor will generate one gigawatt of nuclear power. They were made by adapting third generation US and European nuclear reactor technology designs. CNNC ‘Hualong One’ version will be the main domestic model built with the aim of lowering the price of the reactor to equip the national fleet cheaply while having generation 3 or or 3.5 safety levels.
Target cost in China is $2800-3000/kWe, though recent estimates mention $3500/kW. CGN said in November 2015 that the series construction cost would be CNY 17,000/kWe ($2650/kWe), compared with CNY 13,000/kWe for generation II reactors. This is about four times lower cost than US and European reactors built in the USA. China’s costs have been far lower but China’s build of the Western AP1000 system and the French EPR had cost and time overruns. Hualong was originally planned as a reactor for export but is now a main option in China because of problems on the AP1000 construction.
The CNNC and CGN versions will be very similar but not identical; they will have slightly different safety systems, with CNNC use more passive safety under AP1000 influence with increased containment volume and two active safety trains, and CGN with French influence having three active safety trains.
The Hualong One or HPR1000 has 177 fuel assemblies 3.66 m long, 18-24 month refuelling interval, equilibrium fuel load will be 72 assemblies with 4.45% enriched fuel. It has three coolant loops, double containment and active safety systems with some passive elements, and a 60-year design life. The passive systems are able to operate for 72 hours with a sufficient inventory of storage water and dedicated batteries. The CGN version delivers 3150 MWt, 1150 MWe gross, 1092 MWe net, while CNNC quotes 3050 MWt, 1170 MWe gross, 1090 MWe net. Average burn-up is 45,000 MWd/tU, thermal efficiency 36%. Seismic tolerance is 300 Gal. Instrumentation and control systems will be from Areva-Siemens, but overall 90% will be indigenous components.



South Korea

US NRC set to certify APR-1400 reactor design World Nuclear News; 01 May 2019

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has said it will issue a direct final rule certifying the Korean-designed Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR-1400). The certification, valid for 15 years, will state that the NRC finds the design fully acceptable for deployment in the USA.
Korea Electric Power Corporation (Kepco) and its subsidiary Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) originally submitted the design to the NRC in September 2013. They then submitted a revised version of its application in December 2014. The NRC completed an acceptance check in March 2015 and ruled that the revised application was sufficiently complete for it to undertake a full design certification review.
The design certification process determines whether a reactor design meets US safety requirements, independent of any specific site or plan to build. It is a required step before a reactor design can be built in the USA, as it can be referenced in construction and operation licence (COL) applications for specific reactor projects.
The NRC announced yesterday that it has completed its review and will issue a rule certifying the APR-1400 design. The rule will become effective 120 days following publication in the Federal Register.
The NRC has already certified five other standard reactor designs: General Electric's Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Westinghouse's System 80+, AP600 and AP1000; and, GE's Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. It is also reviewing applications to certify Mitsubishi's US Advanced Pressurised Water Reactor (US-APWR) and the NuScale small modular reactor. NRC staff are also reviewing an application to renew the ABWR certification.
The APR-1400 is an evolutionary pressurised water reactor with its origins in the CE System 80+ model. Principally designed by Korea Engineering Company (Kopec), it produces 1400 MWe and has a 60-year design life. It supercedes the standardised 995 MWe OPR-1400 design, of which South Korea built 12. The APR-1400 features improvements in operation, safety, maintenance and affordability based on accumulated experience as well as technological development. Design certification by the Korean Institute of Nuclear Safety was awarded in May 2003.
Construction of the first two APR-1400s - as units 3 and 4 of South Korea's Shin Kori plant - began in October 2008 and August 2009, respectively. Unit 3, which was originally scheduled to enter commercial operation at the end of 2013, eventually reached first criticality in December 2015, was connected to the grid in January 2016 and entered commercial operation in December that year. Unit 4 achieved first criticality on 8 April this year, with grid connection on 22 April.
Construction of two further APR-1400 reactors at Shin Kori - units 5 and 6 - began in April 2017 and September 2018, respectively. Unit 5 is scheduled to begin commercial operation in March 2022, with unit 6 following one year later. Two further APR-1400 units are under construction in South Korea as units 1 and 2 of the Shin Hanul site.
A further four APR-1400s are under construction at Barakah in the United Arab Emirates, with the first of those units scheduled to begin operation in 2020.

(News Focus) S. Korea eyes nuclear decommissioning as Kori-1 retires Kang Yoon-seung; YONHAP News Agency; 30 Oct 2019

When South Korea vowed to reduce heavy reliance on nuclear power in favor of renewable energy sources with the retirement of the Kori-1 reactor in 2017, a key question rose to the surface -- how can a reactor be decommissioned safely?
South Korea is set to retire 11 out of 24 reactors on its soil by the end of 2030.
The retirement of South Korea's oldest nuclear reactor is significant as it not only symbolizes the country's shift towards new energy sources, but also the birth of the nuclear-plant decommissioning industry.


Shikoku moves closer to Ikata 3 restart 4 Mar 2016

Japanese institute sees 19 reactor restarts by March 2018 World Nuclear News; 28 Jul 2016

Seven Japanese nuclear power reactors are likely to be in operation by the end of next March and 12 more one year later, according to an estimate by the Institute of Energy Economics, Japan (IEEJ).


India budgets to boost nuclear projects 1 Mar 2016

extra 30 billion rupees ($442 million) to boost nuclear power generation projects over the next 15-20 years
India has 21 nuclear power plants in operation, with six under construction, and plans for further construction of both indigenous pressurized heavy water reactors and projects with overseas partners. In April 2015 the government gave its approval in principle for new nuclear plants at ten sites in nine states: indigenous PHWRs at Gorakhpur in Haryana's Fatehabad; Chutka and Bhimpur in Madhya Pradesh; Kaiga in Karnataka; and Mahi Banswara in Rajasthan; and plants with foreign cooperation at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu (VVER); Jaitapur in Maharashtra (EPR); Mithi Virdhi in Gujarat (AP1000); Kovvada in Andhra Pradesh (ESBWR) and Haripur in West Bengal (VVER). Two 600 MWe fast breeder reactors are also proposed at Kalpakkam.
In January, Indian prime minister Narendra Modi and French president Francois Hollande said that the two countries are on course to finalize a deal on the construction of six EPR units at Jaitapur by the end of the year. The same month, the Indian cabinet confirmed that commercial negotiations between Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) and Westinghouse on the construction of six AP1000 units at Mithi Virdi in India were also on course to be finalized this year.

A future energy giant? India's thorium-based nuclear plans; 1 Oct 2010

India's secretive nuclear story: A tale of cheers and tears Pallava Bagla; The Economic Times (India); 17 Jul 2016

At India's highly-guarded and walled atomic establishment, there are cheers in southern India, but tears in the western part of the country.
Much to cheer about at Kudankulam, as India's largest nuclear power park situated not far from the tip of India, Kanyakumari, is now operational. The twin 1000 MW atomic reactors have nuclear fission reaction running in them for the first time. The first unit started supplying electricity in 2013 and the second unit which became operational this week and will start feeding electricity to the grid in a few weeks.
At the same time, some 2000 km away, some grief and tears since the indigenously made Kakrapar Atomic Power Station in Gujarat remains shut for nearly four months after a leak in the nuclear island of the reactor forced an emergency shut down of a fully operating plant.


Russia plans start-up of first Gen-III+ unit this summer World Nuclear News; 30 Mar 2016

ASE Group has announced plans for Russia to connect its first Generation-III+ nuclear power unit to the grid this summer. The first fuel assembly was loaded at unit 1 of the Novovoronezh II nuclear power plant in western Russia on 24 March at 3.28am, while the "active phase" of the loading process began the following day. Novovoronezh 6 is a Generation-III+ VVER 1200/392M pressurised water reactor (PWR) unit with a design net capacity of 1114 MWe. It is the first of two units at Novovoronezh II - the lead project for the deployment of the AES-2006 design incorporating a Gidropress-designed PWR, an evolutionary development from the VVER-1000. Construction of Novovoronezh II units 1 and 2, also known as Novovoronezh units 6 and 7, began in June 2008 and July 2009, respectively. The original Novovoronezh site nearby already hosts three operating reactors and two that are being decommissioned.

Nuclear Power in Russia World Nuclear Association; Oct 2018

  • Russia is moving steadily forward with plans for an expanded role of nuclear energy, including development of new reactor technology.
  • It is committed to closing the fuel cycle, and sees fast reactors as a key to this.
  • Exports of nuclear goods and services are a major Russian policy and economic objective. Over 20 nuclear power reactors are confirmed or planned for export construction. Foreign orders totalled $133 billion in late 2017.
  • Russia is a world leader in fast neutron reactor technology and is consolidating this through its Proryv ('Breakthrough') project.



IAEA approves Kenya nuclear power application 25 Apr 2016